How can consumers in ASOTIN be sure a genetic test is valid and useful?
Before undergoing genetic testing, it is important to be sure that the test is valid and useful. A genetic test is valid if it provides an accurate result. Two main measures of accuracy apply to genetic tests: analytical validity and clinical validity. Another measure of the quality of a genetic test is its usefulness, or clinical utility.
Analytical validity refers to how well the test predicts the presence or absence of a particular gene or genetic change. In other words, can the test accurately detect whether a specific genetic variant is present or absent?
Clinical validity refers to how well the genetic variant being analyzed is related to the presence, absence, or risk of a specific disease.
Clinical utility refers to whether the test can provide information about diagnosis, treatment, management, or prevention of a disease that will be helpful to a consumer.
All laboratories that perform health-related testing, including genetic testing, are subject to federal regulatory standards called the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) or even stricter state requirements. CLIA standards cover how tests are performed, the qualifications of laboratory personnel, and quality control and testing procedures for each laboratory. By controlling the quality of laboratory practices, CLIA standards are designed to ensure the analytical validity of genetic tests.
CLIA standards do not address the clinical validity or clinical utility of genetic tests. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires information about clinical validity for some genetic tests. Additionally, the state of New York requires information on clinical validity for all laboratory tests performed for people living in that state. Consumers, health providers, and health insurance companies are often the ones who determine the clinical utility of a genetic test.
It can be difficult to determine the quality of a genetic test sold directly to the public. Some providers of direct-to-consumer genetic tests are not CLIA-certified, so it can be difficult to tell whether their tests are valid. If providers of direct-to-consumer genetic tests offer easy-to-understand information about the scientific basis of their tests, it can help consumers make more informed decisions. It may also be helpful to discuss any concerns with a health professional before ordering a direct-to-consumer genetic test.
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This is Real: The World Climate is Changing
Our Earth is warming. The average temperature of the Earth has risen about 1.4 ° F (0.7 ° C over) over the last century. It is projected that the average temperature rise of approximately 2 to 11.5 ° F (1.1 ° C to 6.4 ° C) over the next hundred years. Small changes in average global temperature could lead to large and potentially dangerous changes in climate and weather.
The evidence is clear. Rising temperatures have been accompanied by changes in the weather and climate. Many sites have seen changes in rainfall, which resulted in more flooding, drought or heavy rain and waves more frequent and severe heat.The oceans and glaciers on the planet have also undergone some big changes: the oceans are warming and acidifying, the ice caps are melting and sea levels are rising. As these and other changes are more pronounced in the coming decades, they will have to present challenges to our society and our environment.
Learn about the signs of climate change in the United States.
Humans are largely responsible for recent climate change
Over the past century, human activity has downloaded large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Most greenhouse gases come from the burning of fossil fuels that produce energy, but deforestation, industrial processes and some agricultural practices also emit gases into the atmosphere.
The greenhouse gases act like a blanket around the Earth, which traps energy in the atmosphere and causes it to heat.This phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect is natural and necessary to sustain life on Earth. However, the accumulation of greenhouse gases can change the Earth´s climate and dangerous effects to human health and welfare and ecosystems.
The choices we make today will affect the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will in the near future and for years to come.
Learn about the causes of climate change .
Climate change affects all
Our lives are linked to climate. Human societies have adapted to relatively stable climate which have enjoyed since the last Ice Age ended several millennia ago. A warming climate will result in process changes that could affect our water supplies, agriculture, energy and transport systems, the natural environment and to our own health and safety.
Some of the climate changes are inevitable. carbon dioxide can remain in the atmosphere for about a century so the Earth will continue to warm over the coming decades. The hotter it gets, the greater the risk of more severe changes in climate and Earth system. Although it is difficult to predict the exact impacts of climate change, it is clear that the climate to which we are accustomed to is no longer a guide to which we can trust what we can expect in the future.
We can reduce the risks we face from climate change. Choosing options that reduce pollution from greenhouse gases and prepare for the changes that are already underway, we can reduce the risks of climate change. Our decisions will shape the world in which our children and grandchildren will live.
Learn about the impacts of climate change and adaptation to change .
We can make a difference
You can take action. You can take steps at home, on the road, in your office to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and the risks associated with climate change. Many of these steps can save you money; some, such as walking or cycling to work could improve your health! You may also participate in activities to support local or state level energy efficiency, clean energy programs and other climate programs.
Learn about what you can do .
Calculate your carbon footprint and find ways to reduce their emissions through simple actions you take daily.
EPA and other federal agencies are taking action. EPA is working to protect the health and welfare of the people in this country through common sense measures to reduce pollution and greenhouse gases to help communities prepare for change climate.
Avoiding cyberbullyng in ASOTIN
Cyberbullying is bullying that takes place using electronic technology. Electronic technology includes devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, and tablets as well as communication tools including social media sites, text messages, chat, and websites.
Examples of cyberbullying include mean text messages or emails, rumors sent by email or posted on social networking sites, and embarrassing pictures, videos, websites, or fake profiles.
Why Cyberbullying is Different
Kids who are being cyberbullied are often bullied in person as well. Additionally, kids who are cyberbullied have a harder time getting away from the behavior.
- Cyberbullying can happen 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and reach a kid even when he or she is alone. It can happen any time of the day or night.
- Cyberbullying messages and images can be posted anonymously and distributed quickly to a very wide audience. It can be difficult and sometimes impossible to trace the source.
- Deleting inappropriate or harassing messages, texts, and pictures is extremely difficult after they have been posted or sent.
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Effects of Cyberbullying
Cell phones and computers themselves are not to blame for cyberbullying. Social media sites can be used for positive activities, like connecting kids with friends and family, helping students with school, and for entertainment. But these tools can also be used to hurt other people. Whether done in person or through technology, the effects of bullying are similar.
Kids who are cyberbullied are more likely to:
- Use alcohol and drugs
- Skip school
- Experience in-person bullying
- Be unwilling to attend school
- Receive poor grades
- Have lower self-esteem
- Have more health problems
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Frequency of Cyberbullying
The 2010-2011 School Crime Supplement (National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics) indicates that 9% of students in grades 612 experienced cyberbullying.
The 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey finds that 15% of high school students (grades 9-12) were electronically bullied in the past year.
Research on cyberbullying is growing. However, because kids technology use changes rapidly, it is difficult to design surveys that accurately capture trends.
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