Victms of discrimination in BRIDGETON NEW JERSEY
The EEOC enforces the prohibitions against employment discrimination in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of
1973, Titles I and V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Title II of the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act (GINA), and the Civil Rights Act of 1991. These laws prohibit discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion,
national origin, age, disability, and genetic information, as well as reprisal for protected activity. The Commission´s interpretations of these statutes apply to its adjudication and enforcement in federal sector as well as private sector and state
and local government employment.
The EEOC has held that discrimination against an inpidual because that person is transgender (also known as gender identity discrimination) is discrimination because of sex and therefore is covered under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of
1964. See Macy v. Department of Justice, EEOC Appeal No. 0120120821 (April 20, 2012), http://www.eeoc.gov/decisions/0120120821%20Macy%20v%20DOJ%20ATF.txt. The Commission has also found that claims by lesbian, gay, and bisexual inpiduals alleging sex-stereotyping
state a sex discrimination claim under Title VII. See Veretto v. U.S. Postal Service, EEOC Appeal No. 0120110873 (July 1, 2011), http://www.eeoc.gov/decisions/0120110873.txt; Castello v. U.S. Postal Service, EEOC Request No. 0520110649 (Dec. 20, 2011), http://www.eeoc.gov/decisions/0520110649.txt.
While discrimination based on an inpidual´s status as a parent (prohibited under Executive Order 13152) is not a covered basis under the laws enforced by the EEOC, there are circumstances where discrimination against caregivers may give rise to
sex discrimination under Title VII or disability discrimination under the ADA. See Enforcement Guidance: Unlawful Disparate Treatment of Workers with Caregiving Responsibilities, www.eeoc.gov/policy/docs/caregiving.html.
Federal government employees may file claims of discrimination under the Part 1614 EEO process on any of the bases covered under the laws EEOC enforces, and/or may also utilize additional complaint procedures described below.
Civil Service Reform Act
The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 (CSRA), as amended, also protects federal government applicants and employees from discrimination in personnel actions (see "Prohibited Personnel Practices" http://www.opm.gov/ovrsight/proidx.asp) based on race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, marital status, political affiliation, or on
conduct which does not adversely affect the performance of the applicant or employee -- which can include sexual orientation or transgender (gender identity) status. The Office of Special Counsel (OSC), www.osc.gov, and the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB), www.mspb.gov, enforce the prohibitions against federal employment discrimination codified in the CSRA.
For more information, see OPM´s Addressing Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Federal Civilian Employment at www.opm.gov/er/address2/guide01.htm, OPM´s Guidance Regarding the Employment of Transgender Inpiduals in the Federal Workplace at www.opm.gov/persity/Transgender/Guidance.asp, and OSC´s Prohibited Personnel Practices and How to File a Complaint
Additionally, federal agencies retain procedures for making complaints of discrimination on any bases prohibited by Executive Orders reviewed below. For example, some lesbian, gay, and bisexual employees may file complaints under both the
agency´s Executive Order complaint process (for sexual orientation discrimination) and 1614 process (for sex discrimination), as these are separate processes.
Executive Order 11478, section 1 (as amended by Executive Orders
13087 and 13152) provides:
It is the policy of the government of the United States to provide equal opportunity in federal employment for all persons, to prohibit discrimination in employment because of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicap, age,
sexual orientation or status as a parent, and to promote the full realization of equal employment opportunity through a continuing affirmative program in each executive department and agency. This policy of equal opportunity applies to and must be
an integral part of every aspect of personnel policy and practice in the employment, development, advancement, and treatment of civilian employees of the federal government, to the extent permitted by law.
Executive Order 13152 states that "status as a parent" refers to the status of an inpidual who, with respect to an inpidual who is under the age of 18 or who is 18 or older but is incapable of self-care because of a physical or mental
disability, is: a biological parent, an adoptive parent, a foster parent, a stepparent, a custodian of a legal ward, in loco parentis over such inpidual, or actively seeking legal custody or adoption of such an inpidual. The Executive Order
authorized OPM to develop guidance on the provisions of the Order.
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A generic drug is an identical copy of another factory named
1. What are generic drugs?
A generic drug is an identical copy of another factory named. The same dosage, safety, strength, desired effect, how to use and final results, unless the trademark.
2. Are the equally safe generic drugs to leading factory name?
Yes. The FDA requires that all drugs are safe and effective. Being that the generic use the same active ingredients and work in the body in the same way as the original, also have the same risks and benefits.
3. Are the equally powerful to the original generic drugs?
Yes. The FDA requires that generic drugs are of the same quality, strength, purity and stability as their counterparts with factory name.
4. generic drugs need more time to work in the body?
No. Generic drugs work in the same way and for the same period of time the drugs trade name.
5. Why are generic drugs less expensive?
One of the main reasons is because the manufacturers of generic drugs did not have to invest money to the developers of the original drug spent on the new product. New drugs are developed and protected by a patent. The patent protects the investment-including research, development, distribution and advertising-giving the company the sole right to sell the drug while it remains in effect. When approaching the expiration of the patent, manufacturers pueded submit an application to the FDA to sell generic versions of the drug. Since these manufacturers do not incur these costs desarrolllo the product as the first, can sell the generic version at substantial discounts. There is also more competition and less advertising, which helps keep the price down. Today, almost half of all drug prescriptions are replaced with generic versions.
6. Are drugs with name brand, produced in more modern facilities than generic?
No. Both facilities must meet manufacturing requirements required by the FDA. The agency does not allow drug manufacturing facilities of inferior quality. The FDA annually conducts about 3,500 inspections to ensure that regulations are met. The signatures of generic drugs work comparable to those of drugs called factory facilities. Indeed, the producers of original drugs produce approximately about 50 percent of generic drugs; frequently make copies of their own brand and other firms that are sold without the original name.
7. If the name drugs and generic factory have the same active ingredients, why they look different?
In the United States the law does not allow a generic drug look exactly the same to another name or trademark. However, a generic drug must duplicate the active ingredient of the original. The colors, flavors and some inactive ingredients may be different.
8. Is it necessary that every drug has a generic equivalent?
No. When drugs called factory were introduced, most of which were protected by a patent for 17 years.This provided protection to the originator that covered the initial costs (including research and marketing expenses) to develop the new drug. However, when the patent expires, other companies can introduce genetic competing versions, but only after being put to thorough testing by the manufacturer and FDA approved.
9. What is the best source of information about generic drugs?
Contact your doctor, pharmacist, or insurance company for more information about its generic drugs. You can also visit the FDA on the Internet: Understanding Generic Drugs.