A problem in the city: A GREAT CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL IN ADOLESCENCE CAN IMPAIR THE BRAIN PERMANENTLY
To drink much during the teens years could lead to structural changes in the brain and memory deficits that persist in the adult phase, according to the disturbing results of a study done on animals. The study found that, even as adults, rats who had daily access to alcohol during his adolescence had reduced levels of myelin. With a function not very different from the insulation of electrical wiring, myelin forms an insulating layer that surrounds the axons. These are filiform extensions of neurons that transmit nerve impulses.
These brain changes in rats were observed in a region important for reasoning and decision-making. Animals who drank more alcohol performed worse on a test of memory made when they were adults. The results suggest that high doses of alcohol during adolescence may continue affecting the brain even when the inpidual has left the consumption of alcohol. More research is needed to determine if these findings can be applied to humans.
According to the World Health Organization, a growing number of teens and young adults is provided to drinking to get drunk, consuming four (five for men) or more drinks in about two hours. Previous research in humans have shown an association between an episode of drinking excessive (binge) in adolescence, changes in the myelin sheath in several brain regions, and cognitive impairments in adulthood. However, it was unknown if alcohol was behind these brain differences and behaviour or if there was predisposition factors that could explain the found.
In this study, Heather N. Richardson, Wanette M. Vargas, Lynn Bengston and Brian. W. Whitcomb, of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst American city, as well as Nicholas W. Gilpin, of the State University of Louisiana in New Orleans, United States, compared the myelin in the prefrontal cortex (an area of the brain that is vital to reason and make decisions) in young male rats who gave a daily sweetened alcohol or sweetened water access for two weeks. It was found that animals that drank alcohol in his teens experienced a reduction in the levels of myelin in the prefrontal cortex, compared with those who drank a similar amount of sweetened water. When the researchers examined the animals exposed to the alcohol several months later, they found that continued showing levels of myelin reduced as adults.
COTTAGEVILLE SOUTH CAROLINA tspan:3m
COTTAGEVILLE SOUTH CAROLINA
The Guardian and a warning to COTTAGEVILLE SOUTH CAROLINA: Jehovah´s Witnesses´ silencing techniques, as terrifying as child abuse
Growing up in a Jehovahs Witness family is different. As a child, I didnt celebrate birthdays, Christmas or July 4. Nor did I, or anyone I knew, mix with non-Witness families in Little League or Girl Scouts. Instead, I spent much of my time sharing the good news. I used to go door-to-door on my own with a big, strong, well liked man in my congregation, named Jonathan. I was just 9 and 10 when he repeatedly sexually abused me.
It is really hard for kids to speak up when theyre abused. But the Jehovahs Witnesses make it a lot harder.
They have a 2 Witness rule, which says that anyone who accuses an adult of abuse must have a second witness. If there is no second witness, the accuser is punished for a false accusation - usually by ordering that no Witness may talk with or associate with the false accuser. This is called dis-fellowshipping. For a kid raised only with other Witnesses, it was horrifying. Even your parents would have to ignore you. It was more terrifying than Jonathan.
It was the elders of my congregation who had assigned Jonathan to team up with me. When we separated from the others, he forced me into his pick-up truck and drove us to his house. Then he would say Lets play. It happened too many times. Like everyone else in the congregation, my parents liked Brother Jonathan and trusted him in our family.
My parents were consumed with some really huge problems in those years, and later divorced. I was emotionally alone - and wanted to be the best Jehovahs Witness I could be. Thats why I went out to field service - the door to door ministry that Witnesses are known for.
What my parents didnt know, was that Jonathan had sexually molested another girl in our congregation. The elders knew this and had kept it a secret. They were following orders from Watchtower leaders, based in the world headquarters in New York, who in 1989 had issued a top-secret instruction to keep known child sex abusers in the congregations a secret. This instruction became Exhibit 1 at my civil trial.
The elders and the Governing Body all knew that child molesters hide in religious groups and often are people who are likeable and friendly - like Jonathan. They knew molesters would likely do it again. But they chose to ignore the safety of the kids, in favor of protecting their image - and their bank account - from lawsuits. It was all in that 1989 letter.
A recent report by the Center for Investigative Reporting revealed that they have continued to issues directives urging silence around child abuse. Last November, elders were instructed to avoid taking criminal matters like child abuse to the authorities. Instead, they were told to handle them internally in confidential committees. The report also showed that Jehovahs Witnesses evoke the First Amendment to hide sex abuse claims.
It took me learning about Jonathans other victims for me to speak up. In 2009, I looked on Californias Megans Law website, the states official list of registered sex offenders. There, I found he had been convicted a few years before for sexually abusing another 8-year-old girl. I felt horribly guilty that I hadnt spoken up about him earlier. Now, I need to stop predators from doing this again.
The only way to end this abuse is by lifting this veil of secrecy once and for all.
In our growing global economy, Americans need to have more knowledge and more skills to compete -- by 2020, an estimated 35 percent of job openings will require at least a bachelor's degree, and 30 percent will require some college or an associate's degree. Students should be able to get the knowledge and the skills they need without taking on decades' worth of student debt.
If all 50 states choose to implement the President's new community college proposal, it could:
Under President Obama's new proposal, students would be able to earn the first half of a bachelor's degree, or earn the technical skills needed in the workforce -- all at no cost to them.
President Obama also proposed the new American Technical Training Fund, which will expand innovative, high-quality technical training programs across the country. Specifically, the fund will award programs that: