A problem in the city: A GREAT CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL IN ADOLESCENCE CAN IMPAIR THE BRAIN PERMANENTLY
To drink much during the teens years could lead to structural changes in the brain and memory deficits that persist in the adult phase, according to the disturbing results of a study done on animals. The study found that, even as adults, rats who had daily access to alcohol during his adolescence had reduced levels of myelin. With a function not very different from the insulation of electrical wiring, myelin forms an insulating layer that surrounds the axons. These are filiform extensions of neurons that transmit nerve impulses.
These brain changes in rats were observed in a region important for reasoning and decision-making. Animals who drank more alcohol performed worse on a test of memory made when they were adults. The results suggest that high doses of alcohol during adolescence may continue affecting the brain even when the inpidual has left the consumption of alcohol. More research is needed to determine if these findings can be applied to humans.
According to the World Health Organization, a growing number of teens and young adults is provided to drinking to get drunk, consuming four (five for men) or more drinks in about two hours. Previous research in humans have shown an association between an episode of drinking excessive (binge) in adolescence, changes in the myelin sheath in several brain regions, and cognitive impairments in adulthood. However, it was unknown if alcohol was behind these brain differences and behaviour or if there was predisposition factors that could explain the found.
In this study, Heather N. Richardson, Wanette M. Vargas, Lynn Bengston and Brian. W. Whitcomb, of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst American city, as well as Nicholas W. Gilpin, of the State University of Louisiana in New Orleans, United States, compared the myelin in the prefrontal cortex (an area of the brain that is vital to reason and make decisions) in young male rats who gave a daily sweetened alcohol or sweetened water access for two weeks. It was found that animals that drank alcohol in his teens experienced a reduction in the levels of myelin in the prefrontal cortex, compared with those who drank a similar amount of sweetened water. When the researchers examined the animals exposed to the alcohol several months later, they found that continued showing levels of myelin reduced as adults.
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This is Real: The World Climate is Changing
Our Earth is warming. The average temperature of the Earth has risen about 1.4 ° F (0.7 ° C over) over the last century. It is projected that the average temperature rise of approximately 2 to 11.5 ° F (1.1 ° C to 6.4 ° C) over the next hundred years. Small changes in average global temperature could lead to large and potentially dangerous changes in climate and weather.
The evidence is clear. Rising temperatures have been accompanied by changes in the weather and climate. Many sites have seen changes in rainfall, which resulted in more flooding, drought or heavy rain and waves more frequent and severe heat.The oceans and glaciers on the planet have also undergone some big changes: the oceans are warming and acidifying, the ice caps are melting and sea levels are rising. As these and other changes are more pronounced in the coming decades, they will have to present challenges to our society and our environment.
Learn about the signs of climate change in the United States.
Humans are largely responsible for recent climate change
Over the past century, human activity has downloaded large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Most greenhouse gases come from the burning of fossil fuels that produce energy, but deforestation, industrial processes and some agricultural practices also emit gases into the atmosphere.
The greenhouse gases act like a blanket around the Earth, which traps energy in the atmosphere and causes it to heat.This phenomenon is called the greenhouse effect is natural and necessary to sustain life on Earth. However, the accumulation of greenhouse gases can change the Earth´s climate and dangerous effects to human health and welfare and ecosystems.
The choices we make today will affect the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will in the near future and for years to come.
Learn about the causes of climate change .
Climate change affects all
Our lives are linked to climate. Human societies have adapted to relatively stable climate which have enjoyed since the last Ice Age ended several millennia ago. A warming climate will result in process changes that could affect our water supplies, agriculture, energy and transport systems, the natural environment and to our own health and safety.
Some of the climate changes are inevitable. carbon dioxide can remain in the atmosphere for about a century so the Earth will continue to warm over the coming decades. The hotter it gets, the greater the risk of more severe changes in climate and Earth system. Although it is difficult to predict the exact impacts of climate change, it is clear that the climate to which we are accustomed to is no longer a guide to which we can trust what we can expect in the future.
We can reduce the risks we face from climate change. Choosing options that reduce pollution from greenhouse gases and prepare for the changes that are already underway, we can reduce the risks of climate change. Our decisions will shape the world in which our children and grandchildren will live.
Learn about the impacts of climate change and adaptation to change .
We can make a difference
You can take action. You can take steps at home, on the road, in your office to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and the risks associated with climate change. Many of these steps can save you money; some, such as walking or cycling to work could improve your health! You may also participate in activities to support local or state level energy efficiency, clean energy programs and other climate programs.
Learn about what you can do .
Calculate your carbon footprint and find ways to reduce their emissions through simple actions you take daily.
EPA and other federal agencies are taking action. EPA is working to protect the health and welfare of the people in this country through common sense measures to reduce pollution and greenhouse gases to help communities prepare for change climate.
Two years of community college free for responsible students in CROSS HILL
The President unveiled a new proposal: Make two years of community college free for responsible students across America.
In our growing global economy, Americans need to have more knowledge and more skills to compete -- by 2020, an estimated 35 percent of job openings will require at least a bachelor's degree, and 30 percent will require some college or an associate's degree. Students should be able to get the knowledge and the skills they need without taking on decades' worth of student debt.
If all 50 states choose to implement the President's new community college proposal, it could:
Save a full-time community college student $3,800 in tuition per year on average
Benefit roughly 9 million students each year
Under President Obama's new proposal, students would be able to earn the first half of a bachelor's degree, or earn the technical skills needed in the workforce -- all at no cost to them.
What students have to do: Students must attend community college at least half-time, maintain a 2.5 GPA, and make steady progress toward completing their program.
What community colleges have to do: Community colleges will be expected to offer programs that are either 1) academic programs that fully transfer credits to local public four-year colleges and universities, or 2) occupational training programs with high graduation rates and lead to in-demand degrees and certificates. Community colleges must also adopt promising and evidence-based institutional reforms to improve student outcomes.
What the federal government has to do: Federal funding will cover three-quarters of the average cost of community college. Participating states will be expected to contribute the remaining funds necessary to eliminate the tuition for eligible students.
Expanding technical training programs:
President Obama also proposed the new American Technical Training Fund, which will expand innovative, high-quality technical training programs across the country. Specifically, the fund will award programs that:
Have strong employer partnerships and include work-based learning opportunities
Provide accelerated training
Accommodate part-time work
Read the full fact sheet on the President's proposal here.