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Pearl Marie Jensen


Olson Funeral Home in Fergus Falls is in charge of the arrangements. Condolences may be sent online at www.olsonfuneralhome.com. April 30, 2015 ~ Pine Journal, Cloquet, Minn. NORTHSTAR AUCTION 8728 HWY 53 Cotton MN 12 p.m. Sat., April 25 Motorhome ...

Ziegler CAT Treats Customers to Red Horse Ranch Rodeo


On April 2, Ziegler CAT treated nearly 300 customers to an equipment rodeo in Fergus Falls, Minn. More than 40 pieces of new Cat, AGCO and LEXION equipment were on display inside Northern Minnesota’s premier horse arena, Red Horse Ranch. The rodeo began ...

Quinton Allen Halvorson, 71


There will be a graveside service at 2 p.m. Thursday, April 23, 2015 at Tingvold Lutheran Cemetery in rural Underwood, Minnesota, with the Rev. Nancy Monke will be officiating. Quinton was born in Fergus Falls, Minnesota, May 20, 1943 the son of Morris and ...

Brian Lee Sneva


Brian L. Sneva, age 53, resident of Brainerd, passed away on Monday, April 20, 2015 at his home. Brian was born on March 25, 1962 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota to Gordon and Elaine (Martinson) Sneva. Brian is survived by his mother, Elaine; 2-brothers ...

Fergus Falls Close to Passing Tougher Trespassing Ordinance


Fergus Falls, MN (WDAY TV)-The city of Fergus Falls is close to passing an ordinance to tighten restrictions on trespassing. The proposed change originally arose from a trespassing problem at the Regional Treatment Center. Currently someone can only be ...

Progress: Moving Fergus forward


Coming from Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, Amy Baldwin already has a lot of experience with city level economic development. She will use that experience in her role as the executive director of the Fergus Falls Economic Improvement Commission, which she took ...

College baseball: For Minnesota West, it's back to the drawing board


WORTHINGTON — The meeting in the dugout between head coach TD Hostikka and the Minnesota West Bluejays baseball team Sunday after a doubleheader loss to M State-Fergus Falls was quick and to the point. It’s back to the batting cage with a new approach.

Single-vehicle crash claims life northwest of St. Peter


A single-vehicle crash just before noon Thursday 2 miles north of St. Peter on Nicollet County Road 20 claimed the life of a 20-year-old Fergus Falls man, according to a Minnesota State Patrol report. Andrew N. Taylor was driving his 2002 Dodge Ram north ...

Fergus Falls man dead in crash near St. Peter


ST. PETER, Minn. - A Fergus Falls man is dead after a rollover crash north here shortly before noon on Thursday. Minnesota State Patrol officials said a Dodge Ram was headed north on Nicollet County Road 20 at about 11:51 a.m. when it went off the roadway ...

Otter Tail Corp (OTTR) Names MacFarlane President and CEO


Otter Tail Corporation (Nasdaq: OTTR) hosted 235 shareholders and guests at its annual meeting of common shareholders on April 13 in Fergus Falls, Minnesota. This was the corporation's 105th annual meeting. Represented by proxy or present in person at the ...

Minnesota Dreaming, A Spring Interlude


South Turtle Lake The North. When it comes out of its Winter shell, its Spring can be delightful. Last year my in-laws bought a cabin in Otter Tail County on South Turtle Lake.  They weren’t able to…

On This Day in Math - April 23


"Whatever is worth saying, can be stated in fifty words or less" ~ Stanislaw Ulam *bt (before twitter)Thanks to @cytiaB for this one The 113th day of the year; 113 is prime, its reversal (311) is pri…

20-Year-Old Dead After Pickup Rolls Over In Nicollet County


MINNEAPOLIS (WCCO) — The Fergus Falls man killed after his Dodge Ram rolled over into a ditch and collided with a tree has been identified. On Friday, the State Patrol said the victim was 20-year-old&hell ip;

Carpenter Fergus Falls (MN) – Fergus Falls Carpenters


Carpenter Fergus Falls (MN) Lending helping hands when you need masterpieces built in Fergus Falls (MN). Papa’s Carpenter Specialists in Fergus Falls, Minnesota work with, builds and fixes items and…

20-Year-Old Dead After Pickup Rolls Over In Nicollet County


MINNEAPOLIS (WCCO) – A 20-year-old Fergus Falls man is dead after his Dodge Ram rolled over into a ditch and collided with a tree. He was driving on County Road 20 in Nicollet County. The crash happe…

2011 GMC Sierra 1500 SLE in Fergus Falls, MN 56537 by Nelson Ford | April 14, 2015 at 10:04PM


Video Title: 2011 GMC Sierra 1500 SLE in Fergus Falls, MN 56537 This video has upload by Nelson Ford Date: April 14, 2015 at 10:04PM Original Source (Youtube video ID mN2L-YZ1h-k) 2011 GMC Sierra 1…

what does elissa say in her sleep? what does her alistair?


(So… this happened. I… thanks anon. This was a bit of an experiment but I think I’m liking it.) Alistair tries not to listen when Elissa talks in her sleep. It’s a silly and romantic notion anyway, t…

Carpenter Fergus Falls (MN) – Fergus Falls Carpenters


Carpenter Fergus Falls (MN) Lending helping hands when you need masterpieces built in Fergus Falls (MN). Papa’s Carpenter Specialists in Fergus Falls, Minnesota work with, builds and fixes items and…

The Rev. Joel Lunde, 88, of Fergus Falls


The Rev. Joel Lunde, died March 26, 2015, at Lake Region Hospital in Fergus Falls. Visitation: 5 – 7 p.m. Wednesday, with a 6:30 p.m. Prayer Service, at Glende-Nilson Funeral Home, Fergus Falls, and o…

Lakers Assistant Coach Hails From Western Minnesota


http://media.minneapolis. cbslocal.com/CBSMIN_20150 327234315680AA.mp4 MINNEAPOLIS (WCCO) - Growing up in western Minnesota, he was a high school gym rat. Now, he coaches in NBA gymnasiums. I…




SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR FERGUS FALLS

Responding To and Protecting Students from Sexual Assault in FERGUS FALLS MINNESOTA

January 26, 2015

Courtesy of Eve Hill and Mark Kappelhoff, Deputy Assistant Attorneys General for the Civil Rights pision

Note: The sample MOU can be found at here.

President Obama established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault one year ago. On this anniversary, the task force has released a sample memorandum of understanding (MOU) to assist campuses and law enforcement agencies to work together in their efforts to protect students, address the needs of sexual assault survivors, and ensure a prompt, thorough, and fair response to allegations of sexual misconduct. This is yet another important step in the task force’s effort to help colleges and universities, as well as their partners in the community, address the problem of campus sexual violence.

While colleges and universities can do much on their own, communication and collaboration between campus administrators, campus police and local law enforcement is critically important to address the problem of sexual assault on campus.

The sample MOU reflects input from task force members and agencies, outside experts on sexual assault, police associations, state attorneys general, and campus administrators and counsels.

Many colleges and universities already have MOUs in place with local law enforcement authorities covering a variety of areas. Our conversations with campus administrators, campus police, and law enforcement have underscored the need for additional tools and strategies that are specifically tailored to the dynamics of sexual assault on campus, as well as the needs of sexual assault survivors. The task force is providing this sample MOU with that in mind.

We recognize that every campus and community is unique and there is no one-size-fits-all solution. The sample MOU is, therefore, intended to be a starting point for a conversation between campus administrators, campus police and local law enforcement on how to improve collaborations between critical first responders. We fully expect that, in partnering to address the issue of sexual violence on campus, campus administrators and law enforcement will adapt the provisions of the sample MOU to meet their particular needs and circumstances. For example, some campus and law enforcement authorities may wish to incorporate some or all of the provisions into an existing general campus safety MOU, while others may prefer a standalone agreement specifically addressing campus sexual violence. Still others may decide that some different method of collaboration better meets their needs. We hope that this sample MOU will be an important resource in collaborative efforts between campus administrators, campus police and law enforcement to eradicate sexual assault from college communities nationwide.

Posted in: 

Civil Rights pision

Office on Violence Against Women

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FERGUS FALLS MINNESOTA tspan:3m FERGUS FALLS MINNESOTA




Advices to people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in FERGUS FALLS MINNESOTA

What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?

Irritable bowel syndrome* (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning that the symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—the opening where stool leaves your body. Food is digested, or broken down, in the GI tract.

The organs of the GI tract

*See the Pronunciation Guide for tips on how to say words in bold type.

IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.

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What are the symptoms of IBS?

The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits. The pain or discomfort of IBS may be reported as cramping and

  • starts when you have bowel movements more or less often than usual
  • starts when your stool appears looser and more watery or harder and more lumpy than usual
  • goes away after a bowel movement

The changes in bowel habits with IBS may be diarrhea, constipation, or both.

Symptoms of diarrhea are

  • passing stools three or more times a day
  • having loose, watery stools
  • feeling an urgent need to have a bowel movement

Symptoms of constipation are

  • passing fewer than three stools in a week
  • having hard, dry stools
  • straining to have a bowel movement

Some people with IBS have only diarrhea or only constipation. Some people have symptoms of both diarrhea and constipation or have diarrhea sometimes and constipation other times. People often have symptoms after eating a meal.

Other symptoms of IBS are

  • whitish mucus—a clear liquid made by the intestines—in the stool
  • a swollen or bloated abdomen
  • the feeling that you haven’t finished a bowel movement

Women with IBS often have more symptoms during their menstrual periods.

IBS is a chronic disorder, meaning it lasts a long time, often years. However, the symptoms may come and go. You may have IBS if

  • you have had symptoms at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your symptoms first started at least 6 months ago

While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.

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What causes IBS?

Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:

  • Brain-gut signal problems. Signals between your brain and the nerves of your gut, or small and large intestines, control how your gut works. Problems with brain-gut signals may cause IBS symptoms, such as changes in your bowel habits and pain or discomfort.
  • Colon muscle problems. The muscles of your colon, part of your large intestine, may not work normally. The muscles may contract, or tighten, too much. These contractions may move stool through your gut too quickly, causing cramping and diarrhea during or shortly after a meal, or slow the movement of stool, causing constipation.
  • Sensitive nerves. The nerves in your gut may be extra sensitive, causing you to feel more pain or discomfort than normal when gas or stool is in the gut.
  • Mental health issues. Psychological, or mental health, issues such as anxiety or depression may be related to IBS in some people. Stress can make the nerves of your gut more sensitive, causing more discomfort and emotional distress.
  • Infections. A bacterial infection in the GI tract may cause some people to develop IBS.
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Normally, few bacteria live in the small intestine. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is an increase in the number or a change in the type of bacteria in the small intestine. These bacteria can produce extra gas and may also cause diarrhea and weight loss. Some researchers believe small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may lead to IBS; however, more research is needed to show a link between the two conditions.
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How is IBS diagnosed?

Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.

Your doctor will ask about your

  • medical history
  • eating habits
  • medicine use

Your doctor will look for a certain pattern in your symptoms. Your doctor can diagnose IBS by using symptom-based standards such as the Rome criteria. Based on the Rome criteria, IBS may be diagnosed if

  • your symptoms started at least 6 months ago
  • you have had abdominal pain or discomfort at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your abdominal pain or discomfort has two or three of the following features:
    • Your pain or discomfort improves after a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in how often you have a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in the way your stools look.

Your doctor will also conduct a physical exam and may perform blood tests to make sure you don’t have other health problems. IBS can have the same symptoms as other health problems, so more tests may be needed. If any blood tests suggest you may have another health problem, your doctor might also perform the following tests:

  • Stool test. A stool test is used to check stool for blood or parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water. Your doctor will give you a container for catching and storing the stool. You will return the stool sample to your doctor or a commercial facility. The sample will be sent to a lab to check for blood or parasites. Your doctor may also check for blood in stool by examining your rectum—the lower end of the large intestine leading to the anus—during your physical exam.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and lower colon. This test is used to look inside the rectum and lower colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist—a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases. Anesthesia is usually not needed. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may also need a laxative or enema the night before the test. You may also have one or more enemas about 2 hours before the procedure.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in the rectum or lower colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    You can usually go back to your normal diet after the test, though you may have cramping or bloating during the first hour after the test.
  • Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and entire colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist. You’ll be given a light sedative and possibly pain medicine to help you relax. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may need to take laxatives and enemas the evening before the test.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in your colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    Cramping or bloating may occur during the first hour after the test. Driving is not permitted for 24 hours after the test so that the sedative can wear off. Before the appointment, you should make plans for a ride home. By the next day, you should fully recover and go back to your normal diet.
[Top]

How is IBS treated?

Irritable bowel syndrome is treated by relieving symptoms through

  • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
  • medicine
  • probiotics
  • psychological therapy

You may have to try a few treatments to see what works best for you. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment plan.

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Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

Eating large meals can cause cramping and diarrhea in some people with IBS. If you experience these symptoms, try to change your eating patterns by eating four or five small meals a day.

Certain foods or drinks may make symptoms worse, such as

  • foods high in fat
  • some milk products
  • drinks with alcohol or caffeine
  • drinks with large amounts of artificial sweeteners, which are used in place of sugar
  • beans, cabbage, and other foods that may cause gas

To find out if certain foods trigger your symptoms, keep a diary and track

  • what you eat during the day
  • what symptoms you have
  • when symptoms occur

Take your notes to your doctor and talk about which foods seem to make your symptoms worse. You may need to avoid these foods or eat less of them.

Fiber may improve constipation symptoms caused by IBS because it makes stool soft and easier to pass. Fiber is found in foods such as whole-grain breads and cereals, beans, fruits, and vegetables. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that adults consume 21 to 38 grams of fiber a day.

While fiber may help constipation, it may not be enough to treat the abdominal discomfort or pain of IBS. In fact, some people with IBS may feel a bit more abdominal discomfort after adding more fiber to their diet. Add foods with fiber a little at a time to let your body get used to them. Too much fiber at once can cause gas, which can trigger symptoms in people with IBS.

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Medicine

Your doctor may give you medicine help relieve symptoms. Follow your doctor’s instructions when you use medicine to treat IBS. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects and what to do if you have them.

These medicines can lessen the symptoms of IBS:

  • Laxatives treat constipation. Many kinds of laxatives are available. Your doctor can help you find the right laxative for you.
  • Loperamide (Imodium) treats diarrhea.
  • Antispasmodics help reduce muscle spasms in the intestines and help ease abdominal pain.
  • Antidepressants in low doses can help relieve IBS symptoms.
  • Lubiprostone (Amitiza) is prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.
  • Linaclotide (Linzess) is also prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.

The antibiotic rifaximin can reduce bloating by treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, scientists are still debating the use of antibiotics to treat IBS and more research is needed.

Probiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms—tiny organisms that can be seen only with a microscope. These microorganisms, most often bacteria, are like the microorganisms normally found in your GI tract. Studies have found that probiotics taken in large enough amounts improve symptoms of IBS; however, more research is needed. Probiotics can be found in dietary supplements, such as capsules, tablets, and powders, and in some foods, such as yogurt. Talk with your doctor before using probiotics, supplements, or any other complementary or alternative medical treatment. Read more at www.nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics.

Psychological Therapy

Psychological therapy can help improve IBS symptoms.

  • Talk therapy. Talk therapy may reduce stress and improve IBS symptoms. Two types of talk therapy used to treat IBS are cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic, or interpersonal, therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on your thoughts and actions. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on how your emotions affect your IBS symptoms.
  • Gut-directed hypnotherapy. In hypnotherapy, a therapist may help relax the muscles in your colon by putting you into a trancelike state.
  • Mindfulness training. Mindfulness training can teach you to focus your attention on sensations occurring at the moment and to avoid catastrophizing, or worrying about the meaning of those sensations.
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Does stress cause IBS?

Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse. In addition, simply having IBS symptoms can produce stress.

Learning to reduce stress can help improve IBS. With less stress, you may find you have less cramping and pain. You may also find it easier to manage your symptoms.

Meditation, exercise, hypnosis, and counseling may help lessen IBS symptoms. Getting enough sleep and changing life situations to make them less stressful may also help. You may need to try different activities to see what works best for you.

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Points to Remember

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works.
  • IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.
  • The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits.
  • While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.
  • Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:
    • brain-gut signal problems
    • colon muscle problems
    • sensitive nerves
    • mental health issues
    • infections
    • small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
  • Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.
  • IBS is treated by relieving symptoms through
    • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
    • medicine
    • probiotics
    • psychological therapy
  • Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse.
[Top]

Hope through Research

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases’ (NIDDK’s) pision of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition conducts and supports basic and clinical research into many digestive disorders.

Clinical trials are research studies involving people. Clinical trials look at safe and effective new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. To learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website at www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials. For information about current studies, visit www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

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Pronunciation Guide

abdomen (AB-doh-men)

abdominal (ab-DOM-ih-nuhl)

antidepressants (AN-tee-dee-PRESS-uhnts)

antispasmodics (AN-tee-spaz-MOD-iks)

anus (AY-nuhss)

chronic (KRON-ik)

cognitive (KOG-nih-tiv)

colon (KOH-lon)

colonoscopy (KOH-lon-OSS-kuh-pee)

constipation (KON-stih-PAY-shuhn)

diarrhea (DY-uh-REE-uh)

enema (EN-uh-muh)

flexible sigmoidoscopy (FLEK-suh-buhl) (SIG-moy-DOSS-kuh-pee)

functional (FUHNK-shuhn-uhl)

gastroenterologist (GASS-troh-EN-tur-OL-uh-jist)

gastrointestinal (GASS-troh-in-TESS-tin-uhl)

hypnotherapy (HIP-noh-THAIR-uh-pee)

interpersonal (IN-tur-PUR-suhn-uhl)

intestines (in-TESS-tinz)

irritable bowel syndrome (IHR-ih-tuh-buhl) (boul) (SIN-drohm)

laxative (LAK-suh-tiv)

mucus (MYOO-kuhss)

probiotics (PROH-by-OT-iks)

psychodynamic (SY-koh-dy-NAM-ik)

psychological (SY-koh-LOJ-ih-kuhl)

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For More Information

American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society
45685 Harmony Lane
Belleville, MI 48111
Phone: 734–699–1130
Fax: 734–699–1136
Email: admin@motilitysociety.org
Internet: www.motilitysociety.org

International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
700 West Virginia Street, Suite 201
Milwaukee, WI 53204
Phone: 1–888–964–2001 or 414–964–1799
Fax: 414–964–7176
Email: iffgd@iffgd.org
Internet: www.iffgd.org

Rome Foundation, Inc.
P.O. Box 6524
Raleigh, NC 27628
Phone: 919–539–3051
Fax: 919–900–7646
Email: mpickard@theromefoundation.org
Internet: www.romecriteria.org

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Acknowledgments

Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. This publication was reviewed by Douglas A. Drossman, M.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Thank you also to the Salvation Army, SE Corps, Washington, D.C., for facilitating field-testing of the original version of this publication.

The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.

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National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892–3570
Phone: 1–800–891–5389
TTY: 1–866–569–1162
Fax: 703–738–4929
Email: nddic@info.niddk.nih.gov
Internet: www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the Clearinghouse provides information about digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health care professionals, and the public. The NDDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about digestive diseases.

This publication is not copyrighted. The Clearinghouse encourages users of this publication to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.

This publication may contain information about medications and, when taken as prescribed, the conditions they treat. When prepared, this publication included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1–888–INFO–FDA (1–888–463–6332) or visit www.fda.gov. Consult your health care provider for more information.


NIH Publication No. 13–4686
September 2013

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Page last updated October 16, 2013

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A generic drug is an identical copy of another factory named

1. What are generic drugs?

A generic drug is an identical copy of another factory named. The same dosage, safety, strength, desired effect, how to use and final results, unless the trademark.

2. Are the equally safe generic drugs to leading factory name? 

Yes. The FDA requires that all drugs are safe and effective. Being that the generic use the same active ingredients and work in the body in the same way as the original, also have the same risks and benefits.

 3. Are the equally powerful to the original generic drugs?

Yes. The FDA requires that generic drugs are of the same quality, strength, purity and stability as their counterparts with factory name.

4. generic drugs need more time to work in the body?

No. Generic drugs work in the same way and for the same period of time the drugs trade name.

5. Why are generic drugs less expensive?

One of the main reasons is because the manufacturers of generic drugs did not have to invest money to the developers of the original drug spent on the new product. New drugs are developed and protected by a patent. The patent protects the investment-including research, development, distribution and advertising-giving the company the sole right to sell the drug while it remains in effect. When approaching the expiration of the patent, manufacturers pueded submit an application to the FDA to sell generic versions of the drug. Since these manufacturers do not incur these costs desarrolllo the product as the first, can sell the generic version at substantial discounts. There is also more competition and less advertising, which helps keep the price down. Today, almost half of all drug prescriptions are replaced with generic versions.

6. Are drugs with name brand, produced in more modern facilities than generic?

No. Both facilities must meet manufacturing requirements required by the FDA. The agency does not allow drug manufacturing facilities of inferior quality. The FDA annually conducts about 3,500 inspections to ensure that regulations are met. The signatures of generic drugs work comparable to those of drugs called factory facilities. Indeed, the producers of original drugs produce approximately about 50 percent of generic drugs; frequently make copies of their own brand and other firms that are sold without the original name.

7. If the name drugs and generic factory have the same active ingredients, why they look different?

In the United States the law does not allow a generic drug look exactly the same to another name or trademark. However, a generic drug must duplicate the active ingredient of the original. The colors, flavors and some inactive ingredients may be different.

8. Is it necessary that every drug has a generic equivalent?

No. When drugs called factory were introduced, most of which were protected by a patent for 17 years.This provided protection to the originator that covered the initial costs (including research and marketing expenses) to develop the new drug. However, when the patent expires, other companies can introduce genetic competing versions, but only after being put to thorough testing by the manufacturer and FDA approved.

 9. What is the best source of information about generic drugs?

Contact your doctor, pharmacist, or insurance company for more information about its generic drugs. You can also visit the FDA on the Internet: Understanding Generic Drugs. [5]










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