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Gallup Daily Tracking Poll shows more approval than disapproval of Obama


The Gallup Daily Tracking Poll measures the percentage of Americans who approve or disapprove of the job Barack Obama is doing as president and publishes results showing a three-day rolling average. It’s perhaps as good a way as any to follow how the ...

Gallup-Purdue Index Finds WGU Grads Have Great Jobs, Great Lives


ST. LOUIS, March 5, 2015 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Graduates from Western Governors University (WGU)—parent university of WGU Missouri—are more likely than graduates from other U.S. universities to have the jobs they want, feel engaged at work, and ...

Market Update: Wells Fargo & Co (NYSE:WFC) – Wells Fargo/Gallup Survey: Investor Optimism Surges 21 Points in Q1


NYSE, NASDAQ, Market Data, Earnings Estimates, Analyst Ratings and Key Statistics provided via Yahoo Finance, unless otherwise specified. All information provided "as is" for informational purposes only, not intended for trading purposes or advice.

Gallup: Federal workers better off than private-sector employees


U.S. federal government workers are thriving in their financial well-being more than the rest of the workforce. On average, 44% of federal government employees are thriving financially, compared with 34% of all other workers in the U.S. These findings are ...

Investor Optimism Highest Since 2007: Wells Fargo, Gallup


The Wells Fargo/Gallup Investor and Retirement Optimism Index has surged 21 points in the past three months to its highest recorded level since 2007. The index hit +69 in February, driven by optimism among both retired and non-retired investors about their ...

Wells Fargo/Gallup Survey: Investor Optimism Surges 21 Points in Q1


The Wells Fargo/Gallup Investor and Retirement Optimism Index suggests that consumer optimism is rising steadily, as the Index reached +69 in February, the highest level recorded since 2007. The 21-point rise since November 2014 is the biggest quarterly ...

Insider Selling: PC Connection major shareholder Patricia Gallup Sells 6,250 Shares of Stock (PCCC)


PC Connection (NASDAQ:PCCC) major shareholder Patricia Gallup sold 6,250 shares of the company’s stock in a transaction dated Tuesday, March 3rd. The stock was sold at an average price of $25.78, for a total value of $161,125.00. Following the ...

Gallup Records Significant Drop in Democrats’ Sympathy for Israel


(CNSNews.com) – The proportion of Democrats who sympathize more with Israel than with Palestinians in the Mideast conflict dropped ten points this year to 48 percent, according to a new poll by Gallup. The polling company suggested a link to tensions ...

Gallup poll: Democrats losing sympathy for Israel


The number of Democrats who feel more sympathetic toward Israelis than Palestinians has dropped 10 points in one year, according to a new poll. In a Gallup poll released Monday, less than half of Democrats — 48 percent — say they sympathize more with ...

Gallup: Americans still love Israel, a lot


Though Democrat support weakens recently, presumably in response to Obama-Bibi spat. In the various speeches I’ve given since the summer Gaza conflict, I’ve predicted that the conflict would not move the public opinion needle much, if at all.

Myths of Babylonia and Assyria 10


Myths of Babylonia and Assyria 10 Let me weep over the strong who have left their wives, Let me weep over the handmaidens who have lost the embraces of their husbands, Over the only son let me…

Myths of Babylonia and Assyria 7


Myths of Babylonia and Assyria 7 O Varuna, whatever the offence may be That we as men commit against the heavenly folk, When through our want of thought we violate thy laws, Chastise us not, O…

Pay and Promotion Are Not the Only Motivators (4/4)


This article is the last in our current series of blogs about our Confidence Report, you can read all the articles here. Career plans for women need to recognise that increased pay and vertical promot…

Administrative Justice in Wales: Challenges and Opportunities


By Sarah Nason, Ysgol y Gyfraith/ School of Law, Prifysgol Bangor University On 13th February 2015, UKAJI held its first workshop designed to bring together members from the policy, practice and rese…

Erată la „Tatăl Nostru în galeză”


    & nbsp;   Um blă vorba prin târg că rugăciunea „Tatăl Nostru” în limba „celtă” ar semăna izbitor cu limba română: „Tatăl Nostru în limba celtă, asemănare izbitoare cu limba română”. Prostia asta a plecat…

Tatăl Nostru în “celtă”: presa română, între ignoranță agresivă și manipulare ieftină…


In cazul rugăciunii în “celtă” preluată de atâtea site-uri de informații, mai mult sau mai puțin onorabile, precum DCNews, ActiveNews, și devenită “virală” pe internet, avem de-a face cu nivelul cel m…

Deaf Caleb the youngest motor racer in the world...


A SEVEN-YEAR-OLD Torfaen motorhead believed to be youngest deaf racing driver in the world will be competing in major UK championships this spring. Caleb McDuff, of Henllys, Cwmbran, will take part i…

The Demons Named


” … The existence of several elaborate incantation series in Ashurbanapal’s library, prescribing a large number of formulas to be recited in connection with symbolical rites to get rid of the demons, …

sooooooo so you speak welsh??? this is exciting and wonderful if you do


Yn anffodus, dim ond dysgwr ydw i. Mae fy gramadeg yn hollol ofnawdy. Dw i’n gallu darllen Cymraeg a dw i’n deall pan mae pobl yn ei siarad, ond dw i ddim yn gallu ysgrifennu yn yr iaith yn dda.

Gwaith traddodiadol yng Nghymru / Our mimes on Traditional Work in Wales


Cawsom weithdy ar swyddi traddodiadol yng Nghymru. Ydych chi yn gallu dyfalu’r swydd? Gwyliwch y clip! https://drive.google.com /file/d/0B1Y9o9yTHEkleE12 dmt6eVZlVlk/view?usp=shar ing We had a worksh…




SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR GALLU

Advices to people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in GALLUP

What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?

Irritable bowel syndrome* (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning that the symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—the opening where stool leaves your body. Food is digested, or broken down, in the GI tract.

The organs of the GI tract

*See the Pronunciation Guide for tips on how to say words in bold type.

IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.

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What are the symptoms of IBS?

The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits. The pain or discomfort of IBS may be reported as cramping and

  • starts when you have bowel movements more or less often than usual
  • starts when your stool appears looser and more watery or harder and more lumpy than usual
  • goes away after a bowel movement

The changes in bowel habits with IBS may be diarrhea, constipation, or both.

Symptoms of diarrhea are

  • passing stools three or more times a day
  • having loose, watery stools
  • feeling an urgent need to have a bowel movement

Symptoms of constipation are

  • passing fewer than three stools in a week
  • having hard, dry stools
  • straining to have a bowel movement

Some people with IBS have only diarrhea or only constipation. Some people have symptoms of both diarrhea and constipation or have diarrhea sometimes and constipation other times. People often have symptoms after eating a meal.

Other symptoms of IBS are

  • whitish mucus—a clear liquid made by the intestines—in the stool
  • a swollen or bloated abdomen
  • the feeling that you haven’t finished a bowel movement

Women with IBS often have more symptoms during their menstrual periods.

IBS is a chronic disorder, meaning it lasts a long time, often years. However, the symptoms may come and go. You may have IBS if

  • you have had symptoms at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your symptoms first started at least 6 months ago

While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.

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What causes IBS?

Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:

  • Brain-gut signal problems. Signals between your brain and the nerves of your gut, or small and large intestines, control how your gut works. Problems with brain-gut signals may cause IBS symptoms, such as changes in your bowel habits and pain or discomfort.
  • Colon muscle problems. The muscles of your colon, part of your large intestine, may not work normally. The muscles may contract, or tighten, too much. These contractions may move stool through your gut too quickly, causing cramping and diarrhea during or shortly after a meal, or slow the movement of stool, causing constipation.
  • Sensitive nerves. The nerves in your gut may be extra sensitive, causing you to feel more pain or discomfort than normal when gas or stool is in the gut.
  • Mental health issues. Psychological, or mental health, issues such as anxiety or depression may be related to IBS in some people. Stress can make the nerves of your gut more sensitive, causing more discomfort and emotional distress.
  • Infections. A bacterial infection in the GI tract may cause some people to develop IBS.
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Normally, few bacteria live in the small intestine. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is an increase in the number or a change in the type of bacteria in the small intestine. These bacteria can produce extra gas and may also cause diarrhea and weight loss. Some researchers believe small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may lead to IBS; however, more research is needed to show a link between the two conditions.
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How is IBS diagnosed?

Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.

Your doctor will ask about your

  • medical history
  • eating habits
  • medicine use

Your doctor will look for a certain pattern in your symptoms. Your doctor can diagnose IBS by using symptom-based standards such as the Rome criteria. Based on the Rome criteria, IBS may be diagnosed if

  • your symptoms started at least 6 months ago
  • you have had abdominal pain or discomfort at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your abdominal pain or discomfort has two or three of the following features:
    • Your pain or discomfort improves after a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in how often you have a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in the way your stools look.

Your doctor will also conduct a physical exam and may perform blood tests to make sure you don’t have other health problems. IBS can have the same symptoms as other health problems, so more tests may be needed. If any blood tests suggest you may have another health problem, your doctor might also perform the following tests:

  • Stool test. A stool test is used to check stool for blood or parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water. Your doctor will give you a container for catching and storing the stool. You will return the stool sample to your doctor or a commercial facility. The sample will be sent to a lab to check for blood or parasites. Your doctor may also check for blood in stool by examining your rectum—the lower end of the large intestine leading to the anus—during your physical exam.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and lower colon. This test is used to look inside the rectum and lower colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist—a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases. Anesthesia is usually not needed. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may also need a laxative or enema the night before the test. You may also have one or more enemas about 2 hours before the procedure.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in the rectum or lower colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    You can usually go back to your normal diet after the test, though you may have cramping or bloating during the first hour after the test.
  • Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and entire colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist. You’ll be given a light sedative and possibly pain medicine to help you relax. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may need to take laxatives and enemas the evening before the test.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in your colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    Cramping or bloating may occur during the first hour after the test. Driving is not permitted for 24 hours after the test so that the sedative can wear off. Before the appointment, you should make plans for a ride home. By the next day, you should fully recover and go back to your normal diet.
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How is IBS treated?

Irritable bowel syndrome is treated by relieving symptoms through

  • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
  • medicine
  • probiotics
  • psychological therapy

You may have to try a few treatments to see what works best for you. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment plan.

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Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

Eating large meals can cause cramping and diarrhea in some people with IBS. If you experience these symptoms, try to change your eating patterns by eating four or five small meals a day.

Certain foods or drinks may make symptoms worse, such as

  • foods high in fat
  • some milk products
  • drinks with alcohol or caffeine
  • drinks with large amounts of artificial sweeteners, which are used in place of sugar
  • beans, cabbage, and other foods that may cause gas

To find out if certain foods trigger your symptoms, keep a diary and track

  • what you eat during the day
  • what symptoms you have
  • when symptoms occur

Take your notes to your doctor and talk about which foods seem to make your symptoms worse. You may need to avoid these foods or eat less of them.

Fiber may improve constipation symptoms caused by IBS because it makes stool soft and easier to pass. Fiber is found in foods such as whole-grain breads and cereals, beans, fruits, and vegetables. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that adults consume 21 to 38 grams of fiber a day.

While fiber may help constipation, it may not be enough to treat the abdominal discomfort or pain of IBS. In fact, some people with IBS may feel a bit more abdominal discomfort after adding more fiber to their diet. Add foods with fiber a little at a time to let your body get used to them. Too much fiber at once can cause gas, which can trigger symptoms in people with IBS.

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Medicine

Your doctor may give you medicine help relieve symptoms. Follow your doctor’s instructions when you use medicine to treat IBS. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects and what to do if you have them.

These medicines can lessen the symptoms of IBS:

  • Laxatives treat constipation. Many kinds of laxatives are available. Your doctor can help you find the right laxative for you.
  • Loperamide (Imodium) treats diarrhea.
  • Antispasmodics help reduce muscle spasms in the intestines and help ease abdominal pain.
  • Antidepressants in low doses can help relieve IBS symptoms.
  • Lubiprostone (Amitiza) is prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.
  • Linaclotide (Linzess) is also prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.

The antibiotic rifaximin can reduce bloating by treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, scientists are still debating the use of antibiotics to treat IBS and more research is needed.

Probiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms—tiny organisms that can be seen only with a microscope. These microorganisms, most often bacteria, are like the microorganisms normally found in your GI tract. Studies have found that probiotics taken in large enough amounts improve symptoms of IBS; however, more research is needed. Probiotics can be found in dietary supplements, such as capsules, tablets, and powders, and in some foods, such as yogurt. Talk with your doctor before using probiotics, supplements, or any other complementary or alternative medical treatment. Read more at www.nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics.

Psychological Therapy

Psychological therapy can help improve IBS symptoms.

  • Talk therapy. Talk therapy may reduce stress and improve IBS symptoms. Two types of talk therapy used to treat IBS are cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic, or interpersonal, therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on your thoughts and actions. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on how your emotions affect your IBS symptoms.
  • Gut-directed hypnotherapy. In hypnotherapy, a therapist may help relax the muscles in your colon by putting you into a trancelike state.
  • Mindfulness training. Mindfulness training can teach you to focus your attention on sensations occurring at the moment and to avoid catastrophizing, or worrying about the meaning of those sensations.
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Does stress cause IBS?

Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse. In addition, simply having IBS symptoms can produce stress.

Learning to reduce stress can help improve IBS. With less stress, you may find you have less cramping and pain. You may also find it easier to manage your symptoms.

Meditation, exercise, hypnosis, and counseling may help lessen IBS symptoms. Getting enough sleep and changing life situations to make them less stressful may also help. You may need to try different activities to see what works best for you.

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Points to Remember

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works.
  • IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.
  • The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits.
  • While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.
  • Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:
    • brain-gut signal problems
    • colon muscle problems
    • sensitive nerves
    • mental health issues
    • infections
    • small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
  • Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.
  • IBS is treated by relieving symptoms through
    • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
    • medicine
    • probiotics
    • psychological therapy
  • Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse.
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Hope through Research

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases’ (NIDDK’s) pision of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition conducts and supports basic and clinical research into many digestive disorders.

Clinical trials are research studies involving people. Clinical trials look at safe and effective new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. To learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website at www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials. For information about current studies, visit www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

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Pronunciation Guide

abdomen (AB-doh-men)

abdominal (ab-DOM-ih-nuhl)

antidepressants (AN-tee-dee-PRESS-uhnts)

antispasmodics (AN-tee-spaz-MOD-iks)

anus (AY-nuhss)

chronic (KRON-ik)

cognitive (KOG-nih-tiv)

colon (KOH-lon)

colonoscopy (KOH-lon-OSS-kuh-pee)

constipation (KON-stih-PAY-shuhn)

diarrhea (DY-uh-REE-uh)

enema (EN-uh-muh)

flexible sigmoidoscopy (FLEK-suh-buhl) (SIG-moy-DOSS-kuh-pee)

functional (FUHNK-shuhn-uhl)

gastroenterologist (GASS-troh-EN-tur-OL-uh-jist)

gastrointestinal (GASS-troh-in-TESS-tin-uhl)

hypnotherapy (HIP-noh-THAIR-uh-pee)

interpersonal (IN-tur-PUR-suhn-uhl)

intestines (in-TESS-tinz)

irritable bowel syndrome (IHR-ih-tuh-buhl) (boul) (SIN-drohm)

laxative (LAK-suh-tiv)

mucus (MYOO-kuhss)

probiotics (PROH-by-OT-iks)

psychodynamic (SY-koh-dy-NAM-ik)

psychological (SY-koh-LOJ-ih-kuhl)

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For More Information

American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society
45685 Harmony Lane
Belleville, MI 48111
Phone: 734–699–1130
Fax: 734–699–1136
Email: admin@motilitysociety.org
Internet: www.motilitysociety.org

International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
700 West Virginia Street, Suite 201
Milwaukee, WI 53204
Phone: 1–888–964–2001 or 414–964–1799
Fax: 414–964–7176
Email: iffgd@iffgd.org
Internet: www.iffgd.org

Rome Foundation, Inc.
P.O. Box 6524
Raleigh, NC 27628
Phone: 919–539–3051
Fax: 919–900–7646
Email: mpickard@theromefoundation.org
Internet: www.romecriteria.org

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Acknowledgments

Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. This publication was reviewed by Douglas A. Drossman, M.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Thank you also to the Salvation Army, SE Corps, Washington, D.C., for facilitating field-testing of the original version of this publication.

The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.

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National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892–3570
Phone: 1–800–891–5389
TTY: 1–866–569–1162
Fax: 703–738–4929
Email: nddic@info.niddk.nih.gov
Internet: www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the Clearinghouse provides information about digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health care professionals, and the public. The NDDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about digestive diseases.

This publication is not copyrighted. The Clearinghouse encourages users of this publication to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.

This publication may contain information about medications and, when taken as prescribed, the conditions they treat. When prepared, this publication included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1–888–INFO–FDA (1–888–463–6332) or visit www.fda.gov. Consult your health care provider for more information.


NIH Publication No. 13–4686
September 2013

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Page last updated October 16, 2013

[9]

GALLUP tspan:3m GALLUP




Earned Income Tax Credit Awareness Day in GALLUP

The U.S. Treasury Department’s State Small Business Credit Initiative (SSBCI) today released a new Quarterly Report detailing how the program continues to help small businesses grow and create jobs. Since the beginning of the program, the Treasury Department has disbursed more than $1.1 billion to participating states.

The Internal Revenue Service is partnering with community-based organizations across the country to promote Earned Income Tax Credit Awareness Day, an effort to alert millions of low and moderate-income workers who may be missing out on a significant tax credit that can be as much as $6,000.

Millions of workers who earned $52,427 or less last year may qualify for EITC for the first time in 2015, making awareness of the credit critical. About a third of the people eligible for EITC fluctuate each year based on changes to their marital, parental and financial status. All across the United States, local officials and community organizations are holding events highlighting this key benefit.

“About four out of five eligible workers and families get the credit they earned. That leaves millions missing EITC every year,” said IRS Commissioner John Koskinen. “It’s an important credit and one of the government’s best tools to fight poverty.”

Last year, almost 28 million eligible workers and families received $66 billion total in EITC, with an average EITC amount of $2,400.

The IRS website is a valuable first stop to help taxpayers get it right this filing season, from information on claiming the EITC, to learning about the Affordable Care Act (known as the health care law), to finding free tax help. The IRS encourages everyone to use the EITC Assistant on IRS.gov/eitc, an interactive tool to find out if they are eligible for the credit. The IRS website also provides helpful information on the health care law and how it may affect tax returns at IRS.gov/aca. There is also an interactive tool that helps individuals determine if they are eligible for the premium tax credit. And qualified taxpayers may also find a free tax return preparation site on IRS.gov/vita.

The amount of EITC varies depending on income, family size and filing status. Those who work for someone else or those who run a business or farm and who earned $52,427 or less during 2014 could receive larger refunds if they qualify for the EITC. This could mean up to $496 in EITC for people without children, and a maximum credit of up to $6,143 for those with three or more qualifying children.

The EITC is refundable. This means those eligible may get a refund from the IRS even if they owe no tax or had no taxes withheld from their paycheck.

Workers potentially eligible to claim the credit should visit IRS.gov/eitc to learn if they qualify, how to claim the credit and more. The EITC Assistant will also determine their filing status, if they have a qualifying child or children and estimate the amount of the EITC they could get. If an individual doesn’t qualify for EITC, the Assistant explains why and a summary of the results can be printed.

Get the Credit — How to Claim the EITC

To get the EITC, workers must file a tax return, even if they are not legally required to file, and specifically claim the credit. Free tax help is available to those eligible for the EITC:

The Internal Revenue Service is partnering with community-based organizations across the country to promote Earned Income Tax Credit Awareness Day, an effort to alert millions of low and moderate-income workers who may be missing out on a significant tax credit that can be as much as $6,000.

Millions of workers who earned $52,427 or less last year may qualify for EITC for the first time in 2015, making awareness of the credit critical. About a third of the people eligible for EITC fluctuate each year based on changes to their marital, parental and financial status. All across the United States, local officials and community organizations are holding events highlighting this key benefit.

“About four out of five eligible workers and families get the credit they earned. That leaves millions missing EITC every year,” said IRS Commissioner John Koskinen. “It’s an important credit and one of the government’s best tools to fight poverty.”

Last year, almost 28 million eligible workers and families received $66 billion total in EITC, with an average EITC amount of $2,400.

The IRS website is a valuable first stop to help taxpayers get it right this filing season, from information on claiming the EITC, to learning about the Affordable Care Act (known as the health care law), to finding free tax help. The IRS encourages everyone to use the EITC Assistant on IRS.gov/eitc, an interactive tool to find out if they are eligible for the credit. The IRS website also provides helpful information on the health care law and how it may affect tax returns at IRS.gov/aca. There is also an interactive tool that helps individuals determine if they are eligible for the premium tax credit. And qualified taxpayers may also find a free tax return preparation site on IRS.gov/vita.

The amount of EITC varies depending on income, family size and filing status. Those who work for someone else or those who run a business or farm and who earned $52,427 or less during 2014 could receive larger refunds if they qualify for the EITC. This could mean up to $496 in EITC for people without children, and a maximum credit of up to $6,143 for those with three or more qualifying children.

The EITC is refundable. This means those eligible may get a refund from the IRS even if they owe no tax or had no taxes withheld from their paycheck.

Workers potentially eligible to claim the credit should visit IRS.gov/eitc to learn if they qualify, how to claim the credit and more. The EITC Assistant will also determine their filing status, if they have a qualifying child or children and estimate the amount of the EITC they could get. If an individual doesn’t qualify for EITC, the Assistant explains why and a summary of the results can be printed.

Get the Credit — How to Claim the EITC

To get the EITC, workers must file a tax return, even if they are not legally required to file, and specifically claim the credit. Free tax help is available to those eligible for the EITC:

  • Free File on IRS.gov. Free brand-name tax software walks people through a question and answer format to help them prepare their returns and claim every credit and deduction for which they are eligible. Free File also provides online versions of IRS paper forms, an option called Free File Fillable Forms which is best suited for taxpayers comfortable preparing their own returns.

  • Free tax preparation sites. EITC-eligible workers can seek free tax preparation at thousands of Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) and Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) sites. Taxpayers can locate the nearest site using a search tool on IRS.gov or through the IRS2go smartphone application.

    It is important for taxpayers to bring along all the required documents and information to make sure they get the EITC they deserve. Also, those who bought coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace should receive Form 1095-A, Health Insurance Marketplace Statement, from their Marketplace in early February. It’s important to also bring the Form 1095-A to the volunteer site. Any taxpayer who does not receive it by early February should contact their Marketplace, not the IRS. The IRS will not have access to the information on the form.

Like last year, the IRS expects to issue more than nine out of 10 refunds within 21 days. The IRS reminds taxpayers that the fastest way to get a refund is to e-file their tax return and choose direct deposit. It takes longer to process paper returns. Because of budget cuts resulting in a smaller staff, it will likely take an additional week or more to process paper returns, meaning that those refunds are expected to be issued in seven weeks or more. Taxpayers can track the status of their refund with the “Where’s My Refund?” tool available on IRS.gov or on IRS2go.

Similar Benefits Available Through the Health Care Law

The Affordable Care Act requires that a taxpayer and each member of his or her family have qualifying health insurance coverage for each month of the year, qualify for an exemption from the coverage requirement, or make an individual shared responsibility payment when filing a federal income tax return.

Premium Tax Credits: If taxpayers bought coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace, they should receive Form 1095-A, Health Insurance Marketplace Statement from their Marketplace by early February. They should save this form because it has important information needed to complete their tax returns. 

If a taxpayer is expecting to receive Form 1095-A and has not received it by early February, they should contact the Marketplace where the coverage was purchased. Due to the fact that the IRS does not have this information, it is recommended that taxpayers contact the appropriate marketplace.

Anyone who benefited from advance payments of the premium tax credit must file a federal income tax return. The taxpayer will need to reconcile those advance payments with the amount of premium tax credit they’re entitled to based on actual income. As a result, some people may see a smaller or larger tax refund or tax liability than they were expecting. When filing their return, taxpayers will use IRS Form 8962, Premium Tax Credit (PTC), to calculate the premium tax credit and reconcile the credit with any advance payments.

Reporting requirements: Most taxpayers will simply check a box on their tax return to indicate that each member of their family had qualifying health coverage for the whole year. No further action is required. Qualifying health insurance coverage includes coverage under most, but not all, types of health care coverage plans. Taxpayers can use the chart on IRS.gov/aca to find out if their insurance counts as qualifying coverage.  

Exemptions: A taxpayer may be eligible to claim an exemption from the requirement to have coverage. If eligible for an exemption, the taxpayer will need to complete the new IRS Form 8965, Health Coverage Exemptions and attach it to their return. The individual must apply for some exemptions through the Health Insurance Marketplace.  However, most of the exemptions are easily obtained from the IRS when filing a tax return.  

Individual Shared Responsibility Payment: If an individual does not have qualifying coverage or an exemption for each month of the year, they will need to make an individual shared responsibility payment when filing their return for choosing not to purchase coverage. Examples and information about figuring the payment are available on the IRS Calculating the Payment page. More information about the Affordable Care Act and the 2014 income tax return is available at IRS.gov/aca.

Get It Right

Taxpayers are responsible for the accuracy of their tax return even if someone else preparers it for them. The rules for EITC are complicated. The IRS urges taxpayers to seek help if they are unsure of their eligibility, whether from a paid tax professional or at a free tax return preparation site. Deliberate errors can have lasting impact on future eligibility to claim EITC and leave taxpayers with a penalty.

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GALLUP: part-time employment while you are enrolled in school

Federal Work-Study provides part-time jobs for undergraduate and graduate students with financial need, allowing them to earn money to help pay education expenses. The program encourages community service work and work related to the student’s course of study.

Here’s a quick overview of Federal Work-Study:

  • It provides part-time employment while you are enrolled in school.
  • It’s available to undergraduate, graduate, and professional students with financial need.
  • It’s available to full-time or part-time students.
  • It’s administered by schools participating in the Federal Work-Study Program. Check with your school´s financial aid office to find out if your school participates.

What kinds of jobs are there?
Are jobs on campus or off campus?
How much can I earn?
How will I be paid?
Can I work as many hours as I want?


What kinds of jobs are there?

The Federal Work-Study Program emphasizes employment in civic education and work related to your course of study, whenever possible.

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Are jobs on campus or off campus?

Both. If you work on campus, you’ll usually work for your school. If you work off campus, your employer will usually be a private nonprofit organization or a public agency, and the work performed must be in the public interest.

Some schools might have agreements with private for-profit employers for work-study jobs. These jobs must be relevant to your course of study (to the maximum extent possible). If you attend a proprietary school (i.e., a for-profit institution), there may be further restrictions on the types of jobs you can be assigned.

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Man working in shop class

If you’re interested in getting a Federal Work-Study job while you’re enrolled in college or career school, make sure you apply for aid early. Schools that participate in the Federal Work-Study Program award funds on a first come, first served basis.


How much can I earn?

You’ll earn at least the current federal minimum wage. However, you may earn more depending on the type of work you do and the skills required for the position.

Your total work-study award depends on:

  • when you apply,
  • your level of financial need, and
  • your school’s funding level.

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How will I be paid?

How you’re paid depends partly on whether you’re an undergraduate or graduate student.

  • If you are an undergraduate student, you´re paid by the hour.
  • If you are a graduate or professional student, you´re paid by the hour or by salary, depending on the work you do.
  • Your school must pay you at least once a month.
  • Your school must pay you directly unless you request that the school
    • send your payments directly to your bank account or
    • use the money to pay for your education-related institutional charges such as tuition, fees, and room and board.

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Can I work as many hours as I want?

No. The amount you earn can’t exceed your total Federal Work-Study award. When assigning work hours, your employer or your school’s financial aid office will consider your class schedule and your academic progress.

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