ISLE MINNESOTA
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Latest News - ISLE MINNESOTA

Senators want action to replenish Isle Royale wolves


Moose first came to the island around 1900, peaking at 2,445 in 1995. Isle Royale sits about 15 miles from Grand Portage off Minnesota's North Shore and is primarily a wilderness area. It's a nearly controlled natural environment because there is only one ...

Make these books from Minnesota authors your traveling companions


Good, a Minnesota writer, comedian and blogger ...
Lake Superior and Islands, including Isle Royale and Susie Island archipelagos. Each begins with an overview of the forces that shaped the area, followed by a look at the inhabitants, from black bear ...

Emmett's Public House: An Irish Minnesotan's Paradise


And if a taste -- but just a wee taste -- of the Emerald Isle is what you're after, Emmett's Public House is for you. An Irish pub is always a sight for sore eyes, whether in Minnesota, New York City, Madrid, or elsewhere. They maintain a reliable sameness ...

Barges Bring Salt Business To The North


To continue building the salt business, the company purchased the rights to Belle Isle, a salt mine located in the Louisiana bayou that provided the constant, steady supply Cargill needed. The first barge of salt at Belle Isle was loaded on December 17 ...

McMANN TOPS WISSOTA LATE MODELS AT PROCTOR OPENER


MN; Brian Carl Duluth; Jared Zimpel Isle, MN DNF: Scott Lawrence Superior; Ronnie Malecki Superior; Spencer Sorenson Duluth DNS: Adam Shinn Duluth Heat 1 (8 laps)McFadden; Burdick; Davey; Dunbar; Myers; Zimpel DNS: Shinn Heat 2 (8 laps) Lawrence ...

Foggy Morning Moose Face-Off: In Case You Missed It


TerHarr sells some photos and also assembles some of the best in the 2016 Isle Royale calendar ...
and even longer from Grand Portage, MN. “You don’t have to go far and you’re soon in the wilderness, either on land, or on the water,” TerHaar ...

City of Isle - Big projects in the works


Isle Mayor Linda Dahlen said Mille Lacs County Community Development Coordinator Richard Baker will do a study in conjunction with the University of Minnesota to find what kind of businesses can locate in Isle and be successful in town. Dahlen said they ...

IOP Exchange Club awards scholarships to outstanding students


Isle of Palms Exchange Club members got a glimpse into the America of tomorrow when future nurses, engineers, teachers, linguists and scientists lined up to receive scholarships at the annual scholarship awards dinner. Six outstanding high school students ...

District 10 - Mille Lacs area: Mn DNR Conservation Officer Weekly Report


CO Chris Tetrault (Isle) checked Mille Lacs anglers throughout the week with ...
WREO Rob Haberman conducted education outreach at the Minnesota’s Sea Plane Association’s annual meeting about AIS laws and the importance relating to sea planes.

Isle Royale study could soon be gone with the wolves


After all, two wolves crossed an ice bridge and visited Isle Royale from Minnesota this past winter, but only stayed six days. What if more wolves visit again next year, stick around and mate with the wolves that are still on the island, questioned David ...

Cody Students See STEM Career Opportunities In Action At Detroit Grand Prix (Video)


http://media.detroit.cbsl ocal.com/CBSDET_201505291 75551910AA.mp4 By Edward Cardenas DETROIT (CBS Detroit) – As many race fans filled the seats along the track at the Raceway at Belle Isle P…

Verizon Upgrades Service At Belle Isle For Detroit Grand Prix


By Edward Cardenas DETROIT (CBS Detroit) – Verizon Wireless customers heading to the Chevrolet Detroit Belle Isle Grand Prix this weekend will find enhanced service due to hardware improvements made …

50-year-old man killed in crash in Isle of Wight


Isle of Wight, Va. – A 50-year-old man was killed Thursday night in a car crash in Isle of Wight. Frank L. Turner of Carrollton, Virginia, was driving northbound on Route 117 south of Route 32 when h…

Emerald Isle


What better way to start off a long weekend to Ireland than by sprinting through a airport? I suppose there is a first time for everything. One would have thought 2 hours would be plenty of time to g…

ISLE OF MAN POST OFFICES INTEGRATED MAILING SOLUTIONS REPRESENTATIVES RECENTLY RETURNED FROM GRASS ROOT ‘NETWORKING DM’ EVENT IN GIBRALTAR


Representatives for Isle of Man Post Offices Integrated Mailing Solutions (IMS) division recently returned from a productive ‘Networking DM’ – Direct Mail event. This year’s event was held April 28 – …

Payment Goblin Offers Bitcoin Services to Clients in Isle of Man


In a press release announcing its partnership with ChainPay, Payment Goblin is now able to offer its bitcoin services to clients based in Isle of Man. From http://ift.tt/1HOcjrfFile d under: Bank, Bitc…

The new TS Royalist and Havengore in West India Dock – 27th May 2015


Last September after the Tall Ships regatta, one ship stayed in West India Dock to be given a final send off.  That  ship was the TS Royalist when a celebration took place to honour its service  for t…

10 Steps on How to Research Child Sexual Abuse in your area – A Rough Guide


I have been asked several times recently how to research child sexual abuse in an area or establishment. I do not claim to be an expert but I pass on what I do. Knowledge is power, we need to get as…

Child Sexual Abuse in the Isle of Man


This post is limited to the information available digitally, which only goes back to Year 2000. This is not a large time period to go on, but enough to give a potted history of abuse on the island. H…

Vulture knocks out power to hundreds in Isle of Wight


ISLE OF WIGHT, Va. (WAVY) — More than a thousand residents in Isle of Wight lost power after officials say a vulture flew into a power line early Monday morning. Dan Genest with Dominion Power tells …




SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR ISLE

Domestic violence in ISLE MINNESOTA

Does your partner ever….

> Embarrass you with put-downs?

> Control what you do, who you see or talk to or where you go?

> Look at you or act in ways that scare you?

> Push you, slap you, choke you or hit you?

> Stop you from seeing your friends or family members?

> Control the money in the relationship? Take your money or Social Security check, make you ask for money or refuse to give you money?

> Make all of the decisions?

> Tell you that you’re a bad parent or threaten to take away your children?

> Prevent you from working or attending school?

> Act like the abuse is no big deal, deny the abuse or tell you it’s your own fault?

> Destroy your property or threaten to kill your pets?

> Intimidate you with guns, knives or other weapons?

> Attempt to force you to drop criminal charges?

> Threaten to commit suicide, or threaten to kill you?

If you answered ‘yes’ to even one of these questions, you may be in an unhealthy or abusive relationship. Don’t hesitate to chat or call to 1-800-799-SAFE if anything you read raises a red flag about your own relationship or that of someone you know.

For over 17 years, the National Domestic Violence Hotline has been the vital link to safety for women, men, children and families affected by domestic violence. With the help of our dedicated advocates and staff, we respond to calls 24/7, 365 days a year.

We provide confidential, one-on-one support to each caller and chatter, offering crisis intervention, options for next steps and direct connection to sources for immediate safety. Our database holds over 5,000 agencies and resources in communities all across the country. Bilingual advocates are on hand to speak with callers, and our Language Line offers translations in 170+ different languages.

The Hotline is an excellent source of help for concerned friends, family, co-workers and others seeking information and guidance on how to help someone they know. We work to educate communities all over through events, campaigns, and dynamic partnerships with companies ranging from The Avon Foundation to Verizon. Today, The Hotline is continuing to grow and explore new avenues of service.

http://www.thehotline.org/

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ISLE MINNESOTA tspan:3m ISLE MINNESOTA




Get a Homeland Security Job in ISLE MINNESOTA

What You Need to Know

The Department of Homeland Security has unique career opportunities that will challenge your mind and reward your skills and talents. As a Homeland Security employee, you will help secure our borders, airports, seaports and waterways; research and develop the latest security technologies; respond to natural disasters or terrorists acts; and analyze intelligence reports.

Next Steps

  1. Find the Job Right for You. Find DHS jobs at dhs.usajobs.gov.

    You can also use USAJOBS through an Interactive Voice Response Telephone System
    phone: 703-724-1850
    TDD: 978-461-8404.

    From general mission support to law enforcement to immigration and travel security to prevention and response, exciting professional growth opportunities exist throughout the Department.

  • Mission support careers involve the following fields: medical, human resources, facilities, budget, procurement, science and technology, training, intelligence, planning and coordination, detection, civil rights, fraud detection and more.
  • Law enforcement careers offer positions in protection of the President, Vice President, their families, heads of state and other designated inpiduals; securing the nation’s borders and enforcing immigration laws; interagency law enforcement training; and enforcing economic, transportation and infrastructure security.
  • Immigration and travel security careers involve protecting the nation’s transportation systems, as well as overseeing lawful immigration to the U.S.
  • Prevention and response careers protect the public, environment and U.S. economic and security interests in any maritime region, as well as provide preparedness, protection, response, recovery and mitigation to reduce loss of life and property and protect the nation from all hazards are what these careers are all about.
  1. Read the Job Announcement. The announcement will provide you with information about job qualifications, duties, salary, duty location, benefits, and security requirements. Here you will be able to determine if your interests, education, and professional background make you a good candidate for the job.

A list of common terms is available to assist you in understanding Department job announcements.

Most Homeland Security jobs require U.S. citizenship and successful completion of a full background investigation and drug screening.

  1. Apply for the Job. Follow the instructions in the “How to Apply” section of each USAJOBS announcement (upper right tab). Instructions will guide you through the application process, providing you detailed information on the questions, forms, and format that must be addressed and used to capture your qualifications for the job. Submit all required documents and pay close attention to the application due date and application procedures, which will vary by job and the Department component.

    During the application process, veterans may be asked to identify Veterans Preference status.

    To post your resume online, apply to certain federal jobs, check on the status of your application, and receive automated job alerts, you must create a USAJOBS member account.

  2. Interview for the Job. The names of best-qualified candidates will be forwarded to the supervisor or hiring official. If you are one of the best-qualified candidates, the supervisor or hiring official may interview you in person or by telephone, or in rare cases may hire you based solely on your application materials. Selection procedures are subject to Federal Civil Service laws, which ensure that all applicants receive fair and equal treatment in the hiring process.

Tips

No matter where you are in your career - at the very beginning, transitioning to the federal government mid-career, or another stage in your professional life - the Department of Homeland Security has a place for you.

  • Student and Recent Graduate Job Opportunities - Learn about internships, fellowships and training programs available across the Department.
  • Experienced Professionals - Use your technical skills and management experience to contribute to the homeland security mission. Explore meaningful career opportunities today.
  • Retirees - The Department offers retirees meaningful work opportunities, including short- and long-term projects, on a part-time or flexible schedule.
  • Veterans - The Department is committed to recruiting and employing eligible veterans for suitable jobs.

LEARN MORE

Last Published Date: December 16, 2014

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Advices to people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in ISLE MINNESOTA

What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?

Irritable bowel syndrome* (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning that the symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—the opening where stool leaves your body. Food is digested, or broken down, in the GI tract.

The organs of the GI tract

*See the Pronunciation Guide for tips on how to say words in bold type.

IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.

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What are the symptoms of IBS?

The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits. The pain or discomfort of IBS may be reported as cramping and

  • starts when you have bowel movements more or less often than usual
  • starts when your stool appears looser and more watery or harder and more lumpy than usual
  • goes away after a bowel movement

The changes in bowel habits with IBS may be diarrhea, constipation, or both.

Symptoms of diarrhea are

  • passing stools three or more times a day
  • having loose, watery stools
  • feeling an urgent need to have a bowel movement

Symptoms of constipation are

  • passing fewer than three stools in a week
  • having hard, dry stools
  • straining to have a bowel movement

Some people with IBS have only diarrhea or only constipation. Some people have symptoms of both diarrhea and constipation or have diarrhea sometimes and constipation other times. People often have symptoms after eating a meal.

Other symptoms of IBS are

  • whitish mucus—a clear liquid made by the intestines—in the stool
  • a swollen or bloated abdomen
  • the feeling that you haven’t finished a bowel movement

Women with IBS often have more symptoms during their menstrual periods.

IBS is a chronic disorder, meaning it lasts a long time, often years. However, the symptoms may come and go. You may have IBS if

  • you have had symptoms at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your symptoms first started at least 6 months ago

While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.

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What causes IBS?

Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:

  • Brain-gut signal problems. Signals between your brain and the nerves of your gut, or small and large intestines, control how your gut works. Problems with brain-gut signals may cause IBS symptoms, such as changes in your bowel habits and pain or discomfort.
  • Colon muscle problems. The muscles of your colon, part of your large intestine, may not work normally. The muscles may contract, or tighten, too much. These contractions may move stool through your gut too quickly, causing cramping and diarrhea during or shortly after a meal, or slow the movement of stool, causing constipation.
  • Sensitive nerves. The nerves in your gut may be extra sensitive, causing you to feel more pain or discomfort than normal when gas or stool is in the gut.
  • Mental health issues. Psychological, or mental health, issues such as anxiety or depression may be related to IBS in some people. Stress can make the nerves of your gut more sensitive, causing more discomfort and emotional distress.
  • Infections. A bacterial infection in the GI tract may cause some people to develop IBS.
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Normally, few bacteria live in the small intestine. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is an increase in the number or a change in the type of bacteria in the small intestine. These bacteria can produce extra gas and may also cause diarrhea and weight loss. Some researchers believe small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may lead to IBS; however, more research is needed to show a link between the two conditions.
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How is IBS diagnosed?

Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.

Your doctor will ask about your

  • medical history
  • eating habits
  • medicine use

Your doctor will look for a certain pattern in your symptoms. Your doctor can diagnose IBS by using symptom-based standards such as the Rome criteria. Based on the Rome criteria, IBS may be diagnosed if

  • your symptoms started at least 6 months ago
  • you have had abdominal pain or discomfort at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your abdominal pain or discomfort has two or three of the following features:
    • Your pain or discomfort improves after a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in how often you have a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in the way your stools look.

Your doctor will also conduct a physical exam and may perform blood tests to make sure you don’t have other health problems. IBS can have the same symptoms as other health problems, so more tests may be needed. If any blood tests suggest you may have another health problem, your doctor might also perform the following tests:

  • Stool test. A stool test is used to check stool for blood or parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water. Your doctor will give you a container for catching and storing the stool. You will return the stool sample to your doctor or a commercial facility. The sample will be sent to a lab to check for blood or parasites. Your doctor may also check for blood in stool by examining your rectum—the lower end of the large intestine leading to the anus—during your physical exam.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and lower colon. This test is used to look inside the rectum and lower colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist—a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases. Anesthesia is usually not needed. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may also need a laxative or enema the night before the test. You may also have one or more enemas about 2 hours before the procedure.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in the rectum or lower colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    You can usually go back to your normal diet after the test, though you may have cramping or bloating during the first hour after the test.
  • Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and entire colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist. You’ll be given a light sedative and possibly pain medicine to help you relax. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may need to take laxatives and enemas the evening before the test.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in your colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    Cramping or bloating may occur during the first hour after the test. Driving is not permitted for 24 hours after the test so that the sedative can wear off. Before the appointment, you should make plans for a ride home. By the next day, you should fully recover and go back to your normal diet.
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How is IBS treated?

Irritable bowel syndrome is treated by relieving symptoms through

  • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
  • medicine
  • probiotics
  • psychological therapy

You may have to try a few treatments to see what works best for you. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment plan.

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Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

Eating large meals can cause cramping and diarrhea in some people with IBS. If you experience these symptoms, try to change your eating patterns by eating four or five small meals a day.

Certain foods or drinks may make symptoms worse, such as

  • foods high in fat
  • some milk products
  • drinks with alcohol or caffeine
  • drinks with large amounts of artificial sweeteners, which are used in place of sugar
  • beans, cabbage, and other foods that may cause gas

To find out if certain foods trigger your symptoms, keep a diary and track

  • what you eat during the day
  • what symptoms you have
  • when symptoms occur

Take your notes to your doctor and talk about which foods seem to make your symptoms worse. You may need to avoid these foods or eat less of them.

Fiber may improve constipation symptoms caused by IBS because it makes stool soft and easier to pass. Fiber is found in foods such as whole-grain breads and cereals, beans, fruits, and vegetables. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that adults consume 21 to 38 grams of fiber a day.

While fiber may help constipation, it may not be enough to treat the abdominal discomfort or pain of IBS. In fact, some people with IBS may feel a bit more abdominal discomfort after adding more fiber to their diet. Add foods with fiber a little at a time to let your body get used to them. Too much fiber at once can cause gas, which can trigger symptoms in people with IBS.

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Medicine

Your doctor may give you medicine help relieve symptoms. Follow your doctor’s instructions when you use medicine to treat IBS. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects and what to do if you have them.

These medicines can lessen the symptoms of IBS:

  • Laxatives treat constipation. Many kinds of laxatives are available. Your doctor can help you find the right laxative for you.
  • Loperamide (Imodium) treats diarrhea.
  • Antispasmodics help reduce muscle spasms in the intestines and help ease abdominal pain.
  • Antidepressants in low doses can help relieve IBS symptoms.
  • Lubiprostone (Amitiza) is prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.
  • Linaclotide (Linzess) is also prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.

The antibiotic rifaximin can reduce bloating by treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, scientists are still debating the use of antibiotics to treat IBS and more research is needed.

Probiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms—tiny organisms that can be seen only with a microscope. These microorganisms, most often bacteria, are like the microorganisms normally found in your GI tract. Studies have found that probiotics taken in large enough amounts improve symptoms of IBS; however, more research is needed. Probiotics can be found in dietary supplements, such as capsules, tablets, and powders, and in some foods, such as yogurt. Talk with your doctor before using probiotics, supplements, or any other complementary or alternative medical treatment. Read more at www.nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics.

Psychological Therapy

Psychological therapy can help improve IBS symptoms.

  • Talk therapy. Talk therapy may reduce stress and improve IBS symptoms. Two types of talk therapy used to treat IBS are cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic, or interpersonal, therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on your thoughts and actions. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on how your emotions affect your IBS symptoms.
  • Gut-directed hypnotherapy. In hypnotherapy, a therapist may help relax the muscles in your colon by putting you into a trancelike state.
  • Mindfulness training. Mindfulness training can teach you to focus your attention on sensations occurring at the moment and to avoid catastrophizing, or worrying about the meaning of those sensations.
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Does stress cause IBS?

Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse. In addition, simply having IBS symptoms can produce stress.

Learning to reduce stress can help improve IBS. With less stress, you may find you have less cramping and pain. You may also find it easier to manage your symptoms.

Meditation, exercise, hypnosis, and counseling may help lessen IBS symptoms. Getting enough sleep and changing life situations to make them less stressful may also help. You may need to try different activities to see what works best for you.

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Points to Remember

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works.
  • IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.
  • The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits.
  • While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.
  • Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:
    • brain-gut signal problems
    • colon muscle problems
    • sensitive nerves
    • mental health issues
    • infections
    • small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
  • Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.
  • IBS is treated by relieving symptoms through
    • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
    • medicine
    • probiotics
    • psychological therapy
  • Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse.
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Hope through Research

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases’ (NIDDK’s) pision of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition conducts and supports basic and clinical research into many digestive disorders.

Clinical trials are research studies involving people. Clinical trials look at safe and effective new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. To learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website at www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials. For information about current studies, visit www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

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Pronunciation Guide

abdomen (AB-doh-men)

abdominal (ab-DOM-ih-nuhl)

antidepressants (AN-tee-dee-PRESS-uhnts)

antispasmodics (AN-tee-spaz-MOD-iks)

anus (AY-nuhss)

chronic (KRON-ik)

cognitive (KOG-nih-tiv)

colon (KOH-lon)

colonoscopy (KOH-lon-OSS-kuh-pee)

constipation (KON-stih-PAY-shuhn)

diarrhea (DY-uh-REE-uh)

enema (EN-uh-muh)

flexible sigmoidoscopy (FLEK-suh-buhl) (SIG-moy-DOSS-kuh-pee)

functional (FUHNK-shuhn-uhl)

gastroenterologist (GASS-troh-EN-tur-OL-uh-jist)

gastrointestinal (GASS-troh-in-TESS-tin-uhl)

hypnotherapy (HIP-noh-THAIR-uh-pee)

interpersonal (IN-tur-PUR-suhn-uhl)

intestines (in-TESS-tinz)

irritable bowel syndrome (IHR-ih-tuh-buhl) (boul) (SIN-drohm)

laxative (LAK-suh-tiv)

mucus (MYOO-kuhss)

probiotics (PROH-by-OT-iks)

psychodynamic (SY-koh-dy-NAM-ik)

psychological (SY-koh-LOJ-ih-kuhl)

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For More Information

American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society
45685 Harmony Lane
Belleville, MI 48111
Phone: 734–699–1130
Fax: 734–699–1136
Email: admin@motilitysociety.org
Internet: www.motilitysociety.org

International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
700 West Virginia Street, Suite 201
Milwaukee, WI 53204
Phone: 1–888–964–2001 or 414–964–1799
Fax: 414–964–7176
Email: iffgd@iffgd.org
Internet: www.iffgd.org

Rome Foundation, Inc.
P.O. Box 6524
Raleigh, NC 27628
Phone: 919–539–3051
Fax: 919–900–7646
Email: mpickard@theromefoundation.org
Internet: www.romecriteria.org

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Acknowledgments

Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. This publication was reviewed by Douglas A. Drossman, M.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Thank you also to the Salvation Army, SE Corps, Washington, D.C., for facilitating field-testing of the original version of this publication.

The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.

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National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892–3570
Phone: 1–800–891–5389
TTY: 1–866–569–1162
Fax: 703–738–4929
Email: nddic@info.niddk.nih.gov
Internet: www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the Clearinghouse provides information about digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health care professionals, and the public. The NDDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about digestive diseases.

This publication is not copyrighted. The Clearinghouse encourages users of this publication to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.

This publication may contain information about medications and, when taken as prescribed, the conditions they treat. When prepared, this publication included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1–888–INFO–FDA (1–888–463–6332) or visit www.fda.gov. Consult your health care provider for more information.


NIH Publication No. 13–4686
September 2013

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Page last updated October 16, 2013

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