A problem in the city: A GREAT CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL IN ADOLESCENCE CAN IMPAIR THE BRAIN PERMANENTLY
To drink much during the teens years could lead to structural changes in the brain and memory deficits that persist in the adult phase, according to the disturbing results of a study done on animals. The study found that, even as adults, rats who had daily access to alcohol during his adolescence had reduced levels of myelin. With a function not very different from the insulation of electrical wiring, myelin forms an insulating layer that surrounds the axons. These are filiform extensions of neurons that transmit nerve impulses.
These brain changes in rats were observed in a region important for reasoning and decision-making. Animals who drank more alcohol performed worse on a test of memory made when they were adults. The results suggest that high doses of alcohol during adolescence may continue affecting the brain even when the inpidual has left the consumption of alcohol. More research is needed to determine if these findings can be applied to humans.
According to the World Health Organization, a growing number of teens and young adults is provided to drinking to get drunk, consuming four (five for men) or more drinks in about two hours. Previous research in humans have shown an association between an episode of drinking excessive (binge) in adolescence, changes in the myelin sheath in several brain regions, and cognitive impairments in adulthood. However, it was unknown if alcohol was behind these brain differences and behaviour or if there was predisposition factors that could explain the found.
In this study, Heather N. Richardson, Wanette M. Vargas, Lynn Bengston and Brian. W. Whitcomb, of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst American city, as well as Nicholas W. Gilpin, of the State University of Louisiana in New Orleans, United States, compared the myelin in the prefrontal cortex (an area of the brain that is vital to reason and make decisions) in young male rats who gave a daily sweetened alcohol or sweetened water access for two weeks. It was found that animals that drank alcohol in his teens experienced a reduction in the levels of myelin in the prefrontal cortex, compared with those who drank a similar amount of sweetened water. When the researchers examined the animals exposed to the alcohol several months later, they found that continued showing levels of myelin reduced as adults.
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Avoiding cyberbullyng in MISHAWAKA
Cyberbullying is bullying that takes place using electronic technology. Electronic technology includes devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, and tablets as well as communication tools including social media sites, text messages, chat, and websites.
Examples of cyberbullying include mean text messages or emails, rumors sent by email or posted on social networking sites, and embarrassing pictures, videos, websites, or fake profiles.
Why Cyberbullying is Different
Kids who are being cyberbullied are often bullied in person as well. Additionally, kids who are cyberbullied have a harder time getting away from the behavior.
- Cyberbullying can happen 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and reach a kid even when he or she is alone. It can happen any time of the day or night.
- Cyberbullying messages and images can be posted anonymously and distributed quickly to a very wide audience. It can be difficult and sometimes impossible to trace the source.
- Deleting inappropriate or harassing messages, texts, and pictures is extremely difficult after they have been posted or sent.
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Effects of Cyberbullying
Cell phones and computers themselves are not to blame for cyberbullying. Social media sites can be used for positive activities, like connecting kids with friends and family, helping students with school, and for entertainment. But these tools can also be used to hurt other people. Whether done in person or through technology, the effects of bullying are similar.
Kids who are cyberbullied are more likely to:
- Use alcohol and drugs
- Skip school
- Experience in-person bullying
- Be unwilling to attend school
- Receive poor grades
- Have lower self-esteem
- Have more health problems
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Frequency of Cyberbullying
The 2010-2011 School Crime Supplement (National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics) indicates that 9% of students in grades 612 experienced cyberbullying.
The 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey finds that 15% of high school students (grades 9-12) were electronically bullied in the past year.
Research on cyberbullying is growing. However, because kids technology use changes rapidly, it is difficult to design surveys that accurately capture trends.
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We know that Samsung is the largest manufacturer in the world of smart phones, and Apple is number two. But, do you have any idea who is the third largest is?
¿Lenovo? ¿LG? Nokia nosing? ¿Sony? No, no, no and no. It is a Chinese company called Xiaomi.
If you´ve never heard of Xiaomi, you can soon do it.
Xiaomi raised 1,100 million dollars in funding from some of the most powerful players in the high tech industry. That gives the company a value of $ 45,000 million - larger than LG, Motorola and Sony together. Xiaomi is now the new world´s most valuable company, even more than Uber, Airbnb and Pinterest.
Xiaomi is also the smartphone maker´s fastest growing company. Its sales soared 211% to more than 17 million smartphones in the third quarter of 2014 - a little less than half the number of iPhones that Apple sold, according to IDC.
Xiaomi participation in the market more than doubled to just over 5%. A year ago, was only 2% of the market.
The smartphone maker in China rose so fast with that focused on China and some nearby high-growth countries. Xiaomi is now the number two brand smartphones in China (behind only Samsung), and recently began selling phones in Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Thailand and Turkey.
Xiaomi arrived in growth markets by storm, offering super low price phones online sales only. The magnificent smartphone E4 company debuted in August, designed to be at home the iPhone killer. Its design almost exactly like the iPhone, helps.
The company has a unique business model: not even about making money with their phones $ 130, which sells at cost. Most of the proceeds from the sale of accessories and applications.
Xiaomi also has a knack for marketing, advertising campaigns have attracted a massive group of very loyal fans in China.
"We will strive to continually bring innovation to everyone, with a goal of producing high-quality, high-performance devices with great user experience," said Bin Lin, founder of Xiaomi, in a Facebook message Monday . "In January 2015, we will launch our next flagship device".
The big question for Xiaomi is whether it can grow beyond the countries where it already sells phones. For example, could Xiaomi shake the US smartphone market, which is dominated by Samsung and Apple?
Chinese manufacturers of smartphones have not exactly been welcome in the United States. None of the major national competitors Xiaomi -Lenovo, Yulong and Huawei- have made no progress in America.
For most of the past decade, Nokia was the world leader in sales of cell phones without a significant presence in the United States. LG, Sony and many others have found international success, but failed to gain traction on US soil.
Xiaomi has no plans to sell phones in the United States. But when that day comes, he will face his greatest challenge.
David Goldman , CNNMoney