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Latest News - ODEM TEXAS

Cohn, Clara Kubiak


Texas, and Helen Zahn and husband, Floyd, of Odem, Texas; brothers, John Kubiak and wife, Marilyn, of Friendswood, Texas, and Frank Kubiak of Hitchcock, Texas; and one grandson, Garrett M. Gilbert.Memorials are suggested to Rock Island Volunteer Fire ...

Clara Kubiak Cohn


Texas, and Helen Zahn and husband Floyd of Odem, Texas; brothers, John Kubiak and wife Marilyn of Friendswood, Texas, and Frank Kubiak of Hitchcock, Texas; and one grandson, Garrett M. Gilbert. She was preceded in death by her parents, Frank and Frances ...

Girl's HS basketball playoffs- Aransas Pass knocks off Odem 47-36


The Bearkats, desperate for a win after dropping their previous three, used a five-run fifth inning to pull away. HOUSTON – The Texas AM - Corpus Christi softball team split its final games of the Houston Hilton Plaza Classic today at Cougar Softball ...

Odem ex Pizana fights through nerves to hurl well for Texas Lutheran


The last person Veny Pizana had to convince that she belonged on the mound was herself. The former all-district softball standout at Odem already had sold Texas Lutheran coach Wade Wilson on her talents as a freshman in the fall of 2013, but she was soon ...

Troubleshooters: Kingsville roof troubles


They point to something on their bills called the AEP Texas Central Delivery charge ...
A woman called the Troubleshooters about County Road 2015 in Odem. There are pot holes up and down the paved portion of the road. If she turns right out of her driveway ...

Elsie Mae Cowger


Her husband, Harry James Cowger; and a daughter, Hope Davis Parks; preceded her in death. Survivors include daughters, Vanessa Green (Ed) of Odem, TX, Deedy Cowger Huffman (David) of Clemville, Janie Cowger Watkins of Markham, and Paulina Cowger Goodman ...

Robstown, Odem Top Small School Baseball


CORPUS CHRISTI - The Robstown Cotton Pickers and Odem Owls combined to take five spots on the 14 ...
The honor squad will be recognized with its large school counterpart at the 11th South Texas Winter Baseball Banquet on January 28 at the Solomon P.

VIDEO: Gas prices dip very low in TX town


Odem, Texas (KRIS/NBC) — One Texas town is all smiles today after waking up to some rather encouragin gas prices. Drivers in Odem, Texas have now seen gas prices averiging $2.71 at four gas stations in town. Drivers say they are extrememly happy about ...

Estella Hernandez Gonzalez


Estella Hernandez Gonzalez, 66, passed July 31, 2014. She was born in Odem, Texas on June 12, 1948 to Salome and Crestina Coronado Hernandez. Estella was a retired Pharmacy Tech. Estella was a resident of Odem ,Texas and formerly of Robstown, Texas.

Odem, Texas Vacation Rentals


Odem, Texas offers great vacation house rental and home rental-by-owner deals for the knowledgeable traveler. No matter what budget or level of comfort you seek in your holiday to Odem, TX, there's surely a great local vacation home rental available to ...

BELLE AND SEBASTIAN - Girls in Peacetime Want To Dance (Rough Trade)


Sometimes I get to feelin' I was back in the old days - long ago When we were kids, when we were young Things seemed so perfect - you know? The days were endless, we were crazy - we were young The sun…

Rozdział 18 część 2


Ciepły szalik chroniący go przed wiatrem, lekkie, nieśmiałe promienie słoneczne, wyzierające zza rzadkich chmur i wesołe paplanie siedzącej obok dziewczyny. Mogłoby mu to wystarczyć, naprawdę.Zerkną ł …

Der Mensch ist im Fluss / The person is in the river


AN-ATMAN: In der hinduistischen Vorstellung besitzt der Mensch ein Element, unwandelbar, mithin göttlich, d.h. unsterblich – in Sanskrit ATMAN (= Selbst). Gott/das Göttliche/Brahman sei in allem, …

330. Ein Bad in der Lust


Der Odem von Lust, Leidenschaft und Mösensaft weckte meine Lebensgeister und ließ die eigenen Säfte steigen. Gierig riss ich Malu die Unterwäsche vom Leib und warf sie auf das von drei wollüstigen Lei…

Franz Otto Kopp 1937-2015 – Kurznachruf


Lichtgeschwindigkeit 5367 vom Donnerstag, 19. Februar 2015 . . Der geniale hannoversche Franz Otto Kopp, Konstrukteur, Maler, Sammler und Homme de Lettres ist kürzlich gestorben. . Geboren am 8…

Ako odem, Thomas Bernhard


    & nbsp;   &n bsp;   &nb sp;   &nbs p;     ;         & nbsp;   &n bsp;   &nb sp;   &nbs p;     ;         & nbsp;   &n bsp;   &nb sp;   &nbs p;     ;         & nbsp; THOMAS BERNHARD AKO ODEM Idem, rekao sam sebi u tvrdoj fotelji, iz zemlje u kojoj je prognano, uništen…

Godina brzo prodje, Vucic i u snovima, 50 shades, losa karma, i tako te stvari


Ovako, postoji poprilican broj stvari o kojima bih zelala da pisem, tako da pre svega, evo prvo kratkog pregleda tema: 1. Godinu dana blogovanja- Wohoooo!! 2. Dan zaljubljenih- prodje i taj dan 3. 50…

A week in my life + obaveštenje! ♥


Evo i mene posle nedelju dana. Mogu vam reći da mi je baaaš nedostajalo pisanje, blog i vi! Odlučila sam da vam jednom u 2-3 nedelje priredim jedno prijatno iznenađenje, a to će biti ovi postovi koji …

Odem Train Derailment Forces Hour-Long Closure of FM 631 Johnny Heath Corpus Christi


Authorities in Odem responded to a train derailment Friday morning on the southside of town after a Union Pacific railcar came off the tracks near FM 631, which is off Highway 77. from KIII TV3 – New…

Odem Train Derailment Forces Hour-Long Closure of FM 631 Johnny Heath Corpus Christi News Blog


Authorities in Odem responded to a train derailment Friday morning on the southside of town after a Union Pacific railcar came off the tracks near FM 631, which is off Highway 77. from KIII TV3 - N…




SPECIAL INFORMATION FOR ODEM

Register now and request your ballots for the year in ODEM TEXAS

The Federal Post Card Application (FPCA) registers you to vote, and acts as a request for your State absentee ballots for the year. It is important to complete a new FPCA annually, every time you move or at least 90 days prior to the election you want to vote in.

Completing a new FPCA is easy at FVAP.gov:

  • Select your State from the drop-down on the home page
  • Click the box at the bottom of the page to Register to Vote, Request a Ballot or Update My Voter Info
  • The FVAP online tool will walk you through the form, and provide you with a PDF packet to print, sign and send directly to your local election official (LEO); links are also provided here for States that offer online voter registration
  • You can check the status of your registration and/or ballot request by contacting your LEO at any time

Remember, the only way your LEO knows how to reach you is with the information you provide! Some States allow a longer time between registrations, but if you submit a new FPCA every year, you wont have to worry about your registration or ballot request status and can participate in all the elections* you´re eligible to.

* While there are no regularly scheduled elections for Federal offices, there may be some elections for office which are vacated by the end of the term. Being registered ensures you will be able to participate in these elections.

#

If you experience any issues or have questions, FVAPs call center is available at 1-800-438-VOTE (8683), DSN 425-1584 or at vote@fvap.gov. Toll-free phone numbers from 67 countries are listed at FVAP.gov. Find us on Facebook at /DoDFVAP and follow @FVAP on Twitter.

PDF version of FVAP Voter Alert #1

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ODEM TEXAS tspan:3m ODEM TEXAS




A generic drug is an identical copy of another factory named

1. What are generic drugs?

A generic drug is an identical copy of another factory named. The same dosage, safety, strength, desired effect, how to use and final results, unless the trademark.

2. Are the equally safe generic drugs to leading factory name? 

Yes. The FDA requires that all drugs are safe and effective. Being that the generic use the same active ingredients and work in the body in the same way as the original, also have the same risks and benefits.

 3. Are the equally powerful to the original generic drugs?

Yes. The FDA requires that generic drugs are of the same quality, strength, purity and stability as their counterparts with factory name.

4. generic drugs need more time to work in the body?

No. Generic drugs work in the same way and for the same period of time the drugs trade name.

5. Why are generic drugs less expensive?

One of the main reasons is because the manufacturers of generic drugs did not have to invest money to the developers of the original drug spent on the new product. New drugs are developed and protected by a patent. The patent protects the investment-including research, development, distribution and advertising-giving the company the sole right to sell the drug while it remains in effect. When approaching the expiration of the patent, manufacturers pueded submit an application to the FDA to sell generic versions of the drug. Since these manufacturers do not incur these costs desarrolllo the product as the first, can sell the generic version at substantial discounts. There is also more competition and less advertising, which helps keep the price down. Today, almost half of all drug prescriptions are replaced with generic versions.

6. Are drugs with name brand, produced in more modern facilities than generic?

No. Both facilities must meet manufacturing requirements required by the FDA. The agency does not allow drug manufacturing facilities of inferior quality. The FDA annually conducts about 3,500 inspections to ensure that regulations are met. The signatures of generic drugs work comparable to those of drugs called factory facilities. Indeed, the producers of original drugs produce approximately about 50 percent of generic drugs; frequently make copies of their own brand and other firms that are sold without the original name.

7. If the name drugs and generic factory have the same active ingredients, why they look different?

In the United States the law does not allow a generic drug look exactly the same to another name or trademark. However, a generic drug must duplicate the active ingredient of the original. The colors, flavors and some inactive ingredients may be different.

8. Is it necessary that every drug has a generic equivalent?

No. When drugs called factory were introduced, most of which were protected by a patent for 17 years.This provided protection to the originator that covered the initial costs (including research and marketing expenses) to develop the new drug. However, when the patent expires, other companies can introduce genetic competing versions, but only after being put to thorough testing by the manufacturer and FDA approved.

 9. What is the best source of information about generic drugs?

Contact your doctor, pharmacist, or insurance company for more information about its generic drugs. You can also visit the FDA on the Internet: Understanding Generic Drugs. [5]




Advices to people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in ODEM TEXAS

What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)?

Irritable bowel syndrome* (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning that the symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—the opening where stool leaves your body. Food is digested, or broken down, in the GI tract.

The organs of the GI tract

*See the Pronunciation Guide for tips on how to say words in bold type.

IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.

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What are the symptoms of IBS?

The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits. The pain or discomfort of IBS may be reported as cramping and

  • starts when you have bowel movements more or less often than usual
  • starts when your stool appears looser and more watery or harder and more lumpy than usual
  • goes away after a bowel movement

The changes in bowel habits with IBS may be diarrhea, constipation, or both.

Symptoms of diarrhea are

  • passing stools three or more times a day
  • having loose, watery stools
  • feeling an urgent need to have a bowel movement

Symptoms of constipation are

  • passing fewer than three stools in a week
  • having hard, dry stools
  • straining to have a bowel movement

Some people with IBS have only diarrhea or only constipation. Some people have symptoms of both diarrhea and constipation or have diarrhea sometimes and constipation other times. People often have symptoms after eating a meal.

Other symptoms of IBS are

  • whitish mucus—a clear liquid made by the intestines—in the stool
  • a swollen or bloated abdomen
  • the feeling that you haven’t finished a bowel movement

Women with IBS often have more symptoms during their menstrual periods.

IBS is a chronic disorder, meaning it lasts a long time, often years. However, the symptoms may come and go. You may have IBS if

  • you have had symptoms at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your symptoms first started at least 6 months ago

While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.

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What causes IBS?

Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:

  • Brain-gut signal problems. Signals between your brain and the nerves of your gut, or small and large intestines, control how your gut works. Problems with brain-gut signals may cause IBS symptoms, such as changes in your bowel habits and pain or discomfort.
  • Colon muscle problems. The muscles of your colon, part of your large intestine, may not work normally. The muscles may contract, or tighten, too much. These contractions may move stool through your gut too quickly, causing cramping and diarrhea during or shortly after a meal, or slow the movement of stool, causing constipation.
  • Sensitive nerves. The nerves in your gut may be extra sensitive, causing you to feel more pain or discomfort than normal when gas or stool is in the gut.
  • Mental health issues. Psychological, or mental health, issues such as anxiety or depression may be related to IBS in some people. Stress can make the nerves of your gut more sensitive, causing more discomfort and emotional distress.
  • Infections. A bacterial infection in the GI tract may cause some people to develop IBS.
  • Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Normally, few bacteria live in the small intestine. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is an increase in the number or a change in the type of bacteria in the small intestine. These bacteria can produce extra gas and may also cause diarrhea and weight loss. Some researchers believe small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may lead to IBS; however, more research is needed to show a link between the two conditions.
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How is IBS diagnosed?

Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.

Your doctor will ask about your

  • medical history
  • eating habits
  • medicine use

Your doctor will look for a certain pattern in your symptoms. Your doctor can diagnose IBS by using symptom-based standards such as the Rome criteria. Based on the Rome criteria, IBS may be diagnosed if

  • your symptoms started at least 6 months ago
  • you have had abdominal pain or discomfort at least three times a month for the past 3 months
  • your abdominal pain or discomfort has two or three of the following features:
    • Your pain or discomfort improves after a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in how often you have a bowel movement.
    • When your pain or discomfort starts, you notice a change in the way your stools look.

Your doctor will also conduct a physical exam and may perform blood tests to make sure you don’t have other health problems. IBS can have the same symptoms as other health problems, so more tests may be needed. If any blood tests suggest you may have another health problem, your doctor might also perform the following tests:

  • Stool test. A stool test is used to check stool for blood or parasites, which are tiny organisms found in contaminated food or water. Your doctor will give you a container for catching and storing the stool. You will return the stool sample to your doctor or a commercial facility. The sample will be sent to a lab to check for blood or parasites. Your doctor may also check for blood in stool by examining your rectum—the lower end of the large intestine leading to the anus—during your physical exam.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and lower colon. This test is used to look inside the rectum and lower colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist—a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases. Anesthesia is usually not needed. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may also need a laxative or enema the night before the test. You may also have one or more enemas about 2 hours before the procedure.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in the rectum or lower colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    You can usually go back to your normal diet after the test, though you may have cramping or bloating during the first hour after the test.
  • Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy is used to look inside your rectum and entire colon. The test is performed at a hospital or an outpatient center by a gastroenterologist. You’ll be given a light sedative and possibly pain medicine to help you relax. Your doctor will give you written bowel prep instructions to follow at home before the test. You may need to follow a clear liquid diet for 1 to 3 days before the test. You may need to take laxatives and enemas the evening before the test.

    For the test, you will lie on a table while the doctor inserts a flexible tube into your anus. A small camera on the tube sends a video image of the intestinal lining to a computer screen. The test can show problems in your colon that may be causing your symptoms.

    Cramping or bloating may occur during the first hour after the test. Driving is not permitted for 24 hours after the test so that the sedative can wear off. Before the appointment, you should make plans for a ride home. By the next day, you should fully recover and go back to your normal diet.
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How is IBS treated?

Irritable bowel syndrome is treated by relieving symptoms through

  • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
  • medicine
  • probiotics
  • psychological therapy

You may have to try a few treatments to see what works best for you. Your doctor can help you find the right treatment plan.

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Eating, Diet, and Nutrition

Eating large meals can cause cramping and diarrhea in some people with IBS. If you experience these symptoms, try to change your eating patterns by eating four or five small meals a day.

Certain foods or drinks may make symptoms worse, such as

  • foods high in fat
  • some milk products
  • drinks with alcohol or caffeine
  • drinks with large amounts of artificial sweeteners, which are used in place of sugar
  • beans, cabbage, and other foods that may cause gas

To find out if certain foods trigger your symptoms, keep a diary and track

  • what you eat during the day
  • what symptoms you have
  • when symptoms occur

Take your notes to your doctor and talk about which foods seem to make your symptoms worse. You may need to avoid these foods or eat less of them.

Fiber may improve constipation symptoms caused by IBS because it makes stool soft and easier to pass. Fiber is found in foods such as whole-grain breads and cereals, beans, fruits, and vegetables. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends that adults consume 21 to 38 grams of fiber a day.

While fiber may help constipation, it may not be enough to treat the abdominal discomfort or pain of IBS. In fact, some people with IBS may feel a bit more abdominal discomfort after adding more fiber to their diet. Add foods with fiber a little at a time to let your body get used to them. Too much fiber at once can cause gas, which can trigger symptoms in people with IBS.

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Medicine

Your doctor may give you medicine help relieve symptoms. Follow your doctor’s instructions when you use medicine to treat IBS. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects and what to do if you have them.

These medicines can lessen the symptoms of IBS:

  • Laxatives treat constipation. Many kinds of laxatives are available. Your doctor can help you find the right laxative for you.
  • Loperamide (Imodium) treats diarrhea.
  • Antispasmodics help reduce muscle spasms in the intestines and help ease abdominal pain.
  • Antidepressants in low doses can help relieve IBS symptoms.
  • Lubiprostone (Amitiza) is prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.
  • Linaclotide (Linzess) is also prescribed for people who have IBS with constipation.

The antibiotic rifaximin can reduce bloating by treating small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, scientists are still debating the use of antibiotics to treat IBS and more research is needed.

Probiotics

Probiotics are live microorganisms—tiny organisms that can be seen only with a microscope. These microorganisms, most often bacteria, are like the microorganisms normally found in your GI tract. Studies have found that probiotics taken in large enough amounts improve symptoms of IBS; however, more research is needed. Probiotics can be found in dietary supplements, such as capsules, tablets, and powders, and in some foods, such as yogurt. Talk with your doctor before using probiotics, supplements, or any other complementary or alternative medical treatment. Read more at www.nccam.nih.gov/health/probiotics.

Psychological Therapy

Psychological therapy can help improve IBS symptoms.

  • Talk therapy. Talk therapy may reduce stress and improve IBS symptoms. Two types of talk therapy used to treat IBS are cognitive behavioral therapy and psychodynamic, or interpersonal, therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on your thoughts and actions. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on how your emotions affect your IBS symptoms.
  • Gut-directed hypnotherapy. In hypnotherapy, a therapist may help relax the muscles in your colon by putting you into a trancelike state.
  • Mindfulness training. Mindfulness training can teach you to focus your attention on sensations occurring at the moment and to avoid catastrophizing, or worrying about the meaning of those sensations.
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Does stress cause IBS?

Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse. In addition, simply having IBS symptoms can produce stress.

Learning to reduce stress can help improve IBS. With less stress, you may find you have less cramping and pain. You may also find it easier to manage your symptoms.

Meditation, exercise, hypnosis, and counseling may help lessen IBS symptoms. Getting enough sleep and changing life situations to make them less stressful may also help. You may need to try different activities to see what works best for you.

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Points to Remember

  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, meaning symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works.
  • IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease. Symptoms can come and go repeatedly without signs of damage to the GI tract.
  • The most common symptoms of IBS include pain or discomfort in your abdomen—the area between your chest and hips—and changes in your bowel habits.
  • While IBS can be painful, it doesn’t lead to other health problems or damage the GI tract.
  • Doctors are not sure what causes IBS. Researchers are studying the following possible causes of IBS:
    • brain-gut signal problems
    • colon muscle problems
    • sensitive nerves
    • mental health issues
    • infections
    • small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
  • Your doctor may be able to diagnose IBS based on your symptoms. Your doctor may not need to do medical tests or may do a limited number of tests.
  • IBS is treated by relieving symptoms through
    • changes in eating, diet, and nutrition
    • medicine
    • probiotics
    • psychological therapy
  • Although stress does not cause IBS, if you already have IBS, stress can make your symptoms worse.
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Hope through Research

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases’ (NIDDK’s) pision of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition conducts and supports basic and clinical research into many digestive disorders.

Clinical trials are research studies involving people. Clinical trials look at safe and effective new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease. Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. To learn more about clinical trials, why they matter, and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website at www.nih.gov/health/clinicaltrials. For information about current studies, visit www.ClinicalTrials.gov.

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Pronunciation Guide

abdomen (AB-doh-men)

abdominal (ab-DOM-ih-nuhl)

antidepressants (AN-tee-dee-PRESS-uhnts)

antispasmodics (AN-tee-spaz-MOD-iks)

anus (AY-nuhss)

chronic (KRON-ik)

cognitive (KOG-nih-tiv)

colon (KOH-lon)

colonoscopy (KOH-lon-OSS-kuh-pee)

constipation (KON-stih-PAY-shuhn)

diarrhea (DY-uh-REE-uh)

enema (EN-uh-muh)

flexible sigmoidoscopy (FLEK-suh-buhl) (SIG-moy-DOSS-kuh-pee)

functional (FUHNK-shuhn-uhl)

gastroenterologist (GASS-troh-EN-tur-OL-uh-jist)

gastrointestinal (GASS-troh-in-TESS-tin-uhl)

hypnotherapy (HIP-noh-THAIR-uh-pee)

interpersonal (IN-tur-PUR-suhn-uhl)

intestines (in-TESS-tinz)

irritable bowel syndrome (IHR-ih-tuh-buhl) (boul) (SIN-drohm)

laxative (LAK-suh-tiv)

mucus (MYOO-kuhss)

probiotics (PROH-by-OT-iks)

psychodynamic (SY-koh-dy-NAM-ik)

psychological (SY-koh-LOJ-ih-kuhl)

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For More Information

American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society
45685 Harmony Lane
Belleville, MI 48111
Phone: 734–699–1130
Fax: 734–699–1136
Email: admin@motilitysociety.org
Internet: www.motilitysociety.org

International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
700 West Virginia Street, Suite 201
Milwaukee, WI 53204
Phone: 1–888–964–2001 or 414–964–1799
Fax: 414–964–7176
Email: iffgd@iffgd.org
Internet: www.iffgd.org

Rome Foundation, Inc.
P.O. Box 6524
Raleigh, NC 27628
Phone: 919–539–3051
Fax: 919–900–7646
Email: mpickard@theromefoundation.org
Internet: www.romecriteria.org

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Acknowledgments

Publications produced by the Clearinghouse are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. This publication was reviewed by Douglas A. Drossman, M.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Thank you also to the Salvation Army, SE Corps, Washington, D.C., for facilitating field-testing of the original version of this publication.

The U.S. Government does not endorse or favor any specific commercial product or company. Trade, proprietary, or company names appearing in this document are used only because they are considered necessary in the context of the information provided. If a product is not mentioned, the omission does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.

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National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

2 Information Way
Bethesda, MD 20892–3570
Phone: 1–800–891–5389
TTY: 1–866–569–1162
Fax: 703–738–4929
Email: nddic@info.niddk.nih.gov
Internet: www.digestive.niddk.nih.gov

The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC) is a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). The NIDDK is part of the National Institutes of Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Established in 1980, the Clearinghouse provides information about digestive diseases to people with digestive disorders and to their families, health care professionals, and the public. The NDDIC answers inquiries, develops and distributes publications, and works closely with professional and patient organizations and Government agencies to coordinate resources about digestive diseases.

This publication is not copyrighted. The Clearinghouse encourages users of this publication to duplicate and distribute as many copies as desired.

This publication may contain information about medications and, when taken as prescribed, the conditions they treat. When prepared, this publication included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1–888–INFO–FDA (1–888–463–6332) or visit www.fda.gov. Consult your health care provider for more information.


NIH Publication No. 13–4686
September 2013

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Page last updated October 16, 2013

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