The cord blood: What You Should Know
The cord blood is present in the blood vessels of the placenta and umbilical cord, and is collected after the baby is born and then cut the umbilical cord; an important detail.
"Because cord blood is usually collected after delivery and after cutting the cord, intervention is generally safe for both mother and baby," says Dr. Keith Wonnacott, PhD, Branch Chief Therapies Office Phones Cell Therapies, Tissue and Genetic FDA.
The use of cord blood is only approved for interventions "hematopoietic stem cell transplantation," which was performed in patients with disorders of the hematopoietic (blood producing). The cord blood contains blood cell production can be used to treat patients with cancers of the blood such as leukemias and lymphomas, as well as certain blood disorders and immune system, such as stem cells of sickle cell anemia and Wiskott-Aldrich
"The cord blood is useful because it is a source of stem cells that are transformed into blood cells. Cord blood transplants can be used for people who need feedback, ie ´re-produce´ these cells producing blood cells, "says Dr. Wonnacott.
For example, in many cancer patients, the disease is found in the blood cells. Chemotherapy to treat these patients undergoing cancer cells eliminates both as producing healthy stem cells of blood cells. Transplantation of umbilical cord stem cells can support the regeneration of blood cells following chemotherapy.
However, the cord blood is not a cure-all.
"Given that cord blood contains stem cells, have been several cases of fraud related to cord blood," says Dr. Wonnacott. "Consumers think that stem cells can cure all diseases, but science has not shown this to be true.Patients should maintain skepticism if the cord blood is available for uses other than blood regeneration by stem "cells.
Information about the storage of cord blood
After obtaining the cord blood is frozen and can be stored safely for many years. "The method of freeze-called ´criopreservación´-is very important to maintain the integrity of the cells," says Dr. Wonnacott. "The cord blood will be stored with care."
Blood from the umbilical cord can be stored in a private bank, so it is available if the baby in the future-or relatives of first or second degree, they need it. The private cord banks typically charge for the collection and storage of blood.
Alternatively, blood can be donated to a public bank so that doctors can use to treat patients who need blood stem cell transplants.
The FDA regulates the cord blood in different ways, depending on its origin, processing level and intended use.
The stored cord blood for personal use, use in relatives of first or second degree, and that also meets other requirements of the FDA regulations, does not need the consent of this body before being used. Still, private cord banks must comply with other requirements of the FDA, including those that require them to register and enroll in the listings, be updated on the proper use of tissues standards, testing and analysis and detection of diseases infectious patients (except when the cord blood is going to be used by the original donor). These FDA requirements ensure the safety of these products to minimize the risk of contamination and transmission of infectious diseases.
The cord blood is stored to treat patients with unrelated donor is eligible to be considered a "drug" and a "biological product". The cord blood in this category must meet additional requirements and be authorized in accordance with a Biologics License Application, or be subjected to research new drug application before it can be used. The FDA requirements help ensure the safety and efficacy of the products in their intended uses.
Not all units of cord blood meeting the requirements necessary to be stored in a public bank, added Safa Karandish, MT, safety officer for the FDA Consumer. If this happens, part of the donated cord blood may be used for non-clinical research.
Tips for Consumers
If you are considering donating to bank cord blood, it is important to study the various options during pregnancy to have enough time to make a decision before the baby is born. If you want to donate to a public bank, ask if the hospital will give birth in a program storage of cord blood.
If you have questions about the risks and the procedures followed to obtain blood, or the donation process, ask your doctor.
The FDA also has a database which is available with information on banks registered cord blood.
All assertions that the cord blood is a miracle cure is not created; it is not. Some parents may consider using a private bank as an "insurance policy" against diseases that may arise in the future. But it is important to remember that currently the only approved use of cord blood is the treatment of hematologic (blood disorders).
Also good to know that, in some cases, the cord blood is stored may not be appropriate for the child who donated."For example, it is not possible to cure some diseases or genetic defects with cord blood containing the same disease or defect," says Karandish.
Parents of children from ethnic minorities should especially consider donating to a public bank, says Dr. Wonnacott, because the more donations make these groups receive more help minority patients who need a stem cell transplant. (Recipients must be "compatible" with donors so that doctors are more likely to find a good candidate among donors within the ethnic group of the receiver).
"As far as public banks is concerned, there is a clear need for cord blood," says Dr. Wonnacott. "And there is a need especially among minorities to have stem cell transplants. The cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells for transplantation. "
And these transplants can change the lives of patients.
A problem in the city: A GREAT CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL IN ADOLESCENCE CAN IMPAIR THE BRAIN PERMANENTLY
To drink much during the teens years could lead to structural changes in the brain and memory deficits that persist in the adult phase, according to the disturbing results of a study done on animals. The study found that, even as adults, rats who had daily access to alcohol during his adolescence had reduced levels of myelin. With a function not very different from the insulation of electrical wiring, myelin forms an insulating layer that surrounds the axons. These are filiform extensions of neurons that transmit nerve impulses.
These brain changes in rats were observed in a region important for reasoning and decision-making. Animals who drank more alcohol performed worse on a test of memory made when they were adults. The results suggest that high doses of alcohol during adolescence may continue affecting the brain even when the inpidual has left the consumption of alcohol. More research is needed to determine if these findings can be applied to humans.
According to the World Health Organization, a growing number of teens and young adults is provided to drinking to get drunk, consuming four (five for men) or more drinks in about two hours. Previous research in humans have shown an association between an episode of drinking excessive (binge) in adolescence, changes in the myelin sheath in several brain regions, and cognitive impairments in adulthood. However, it was unknown if alcohol was behind these brain differences and behaviour or if there was predisposition factors that could explain the found.
In this study, Heather N. Richardson, Wanette M. Vargas, Lynn Bengston and Brian. W. Whitcomb, of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst American city, as well as Nicholas W. Gilpin, of the State University of Louisiana in New Orleans, United States, compared the myelin in the prefrontal cortex (an area of the brain that is vital to reason and make decisions) in young male rats who gave a daily sweetened alcohol or sweetened water access for two weeks. It was found that animals that drank alcohol in his teens experienced a reduction in the levels of myelin in the prefrontal cortex, compared with those who drank a similar amount of sweetened water. When the researchers examined the animals exposed to the alcohol several months later, they found that continued showing levels of myelin reduced as adults.
Fetal fetal ultrasonography provides images in real time.The fetal heart rate monitors Doppler ultrasonic devices are handheld devices that allow one to hear the heartbeat of the fetus. Both are prescription devices designed for use by trained health professionals. They are not intended for sale or use nonprescription medications, and FDA censorship categorically use to take videos and pictures of fetal keepsake.
"Although there is no evidence that there is any damage as a result of the ultrasound images and heart rate monitors, it is important that prudent use of these devices by providers trained health becomes" warns Dr . Shahram Vaezy, PhD, a biomedical engineer at the FDA."Ultrasound can gently heating the tissue and in some cases also create tiny bubbles (cavitation) in some of them."
The long-term effects of heating and cavitation of tissue are unknown. Therefore, ultrasonography should be performed only when there is a medical need, backed by a recipe and trained technicians.
The fetal keepsake videos are controversial, because exposing the fetus to ultrasound brings no medical benefit.The FDA knows of several companies that sell ultrasound imaging in the United States to fetal keepsake videos.In some cases, be that the ultrasound machine used for up to an hour to record a video of the fetus.
Although the FDA recognizes that fetal images can help strengthen the bonds between parents and the unborn baby, such opportunities are provided routinely during prenatal care. In creating fetal keepsake videos, there is no control over how long it will last one sonographic sign, how many sessions will be held or ultrasound systems work well. Instead, explains Dr. Veazy, "the proper use of ultrasound equipment covered by a prescription, ensures that pregnant women receive professional care that contributes to your health and your baby".
Similar concerns surrounding the sale and use of heart rate monitors Doppler ultrasound. These devices, which are used to hear the heartbeat of the fetus, are lawfully marketed as "medical devices prescription", and can only be used by a health professional or under the supervision of one.
"When the product is purchased without a prescription and used without consulting a health care professional who is attending to the pregnant woman, there is no oversight on how the device is used. In addition, it is expected that exposure has little or no medical benefit, "says Dr. Vaezy. "Furthermore, the number of sessions, or duration, for the images of a fetus lack of controls, and that increases the possibility that the fetus and, ultimately, the mother damaged".