A problem in the city: A GREAT CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL IN ADOLESCENCE CAN IMPAIR THE BRAIN PERMANENTLY
To drink much during the teens years could lead to structural changes in the brain and memory deficits that persist in the adult phase, according to the disturbing results of a study done on animals. The study found that, even as adults, rats who had daily access to alcohol during his adolescence had reduced levels of myelin. With a function not very different from the insulation of electrical wiring, myelin forms an insulating layer that surrounds the axons. These are filiform extensions of neurons that transmit nerve impulses.
These brain changes in rats were observed in a region important for reasoning and decision-making. Animals who drank more alcohol performed worse on a test of memory made when they were adults. The results suggest that high doses of alcohol during adolescence may continue affecting the brain even when the inpidual has left the consumption of alcohol. More research is needed to determine if these findings can be applied to humans.
According to the World Health Organization, a growing number of teens and young adults is provided to drinking to get drunk, consuming four (five for men) or more drinks in about two hours. Previous research in humans have shown an association between an episode of drinking excessive (binge) in adolescence, changes in the myelin sheath in several brain regions, and cognitive impairments in adulthood. However, it was unknown if alcohol was behind these brain differences and behaviour or if there was predisposition factors that could explain the found.
In this study, Heather N. Richardson, Wanette M. Vargas, Lynn Bengston and Brian. W. Whitcomb, of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst American city, as well as Nicholas W. Gilpin, of the State University of Louisiana in New Orleans, United States, compared the myelin in the prefrontal cortex (an area of the brain that is vital to reason and make decisions) in young male rats who gave a daily sweetened alcohol or sweetened water access for two weeks. It was found that animals that drank alcohol in his teens experienced a reduction in the levels of myelin in the prefrontal cortex, compared with those who drank a similar amount of sweetened water. When the researchers examined the animals exposed to the alcohol several months later, they found that continued showing levels of myelin reduced as adults.
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Avoid using heart rate monitors or take fetal pictures of "remembrance"
Ultrasonography is the most widely used medical method for imaging the fetus during pregnancy.
Fetal fetal ultrasonography provides images in real time.The fetal heart rate monitors Doppler ultrasonic devices are handheld devices that allow one to hear the heartbeat of the fetus. Both are prescription devices designed for use by trained health professionals. They are not intended for sale or use nonprescription medications, and FDA censorship categorically use to take videos and pictures of fetal keepsake.
"Although there is no evidence that there is any damage as a result of the ultrasound images and heart rate monitors, it is important that prudent use of these devices by providers trained health becomes" warns Dr . Shahram Vaezy, PhD, a biomedical engineer at the FDA."Ultrasound can gently heating the tissue and in some cases also create tiny bubbles (cavitation) in some of them."
The long-term effects of heating and cavitation of tissue are unknown. Therefore, ultrasonography should be performed only when there is a medical need, backed by a recipe and trained technicians.
The fetal keepsake videos are controversial, because exposing the fetus to ultrasound brings no medical benefit.The FDA knows of several companies that sell ultrasound imaging in the United States to fetal keepsake videos.In some cases, be that the ultrasound machine used for up to an hour to record a video of the fetus.
Although the FDA recognizes that fetal images can help strengthen the bonds between parents and the unborn baby, such opportunities are provided routinely during prenatal care. In creating fetal keepsake videos, there is no control over how long it will last one sonographic sign, how many sessions will be held or ultrasound systems work well. Instead, explains Dr. Veazy, "the proper use of ultrasound equipment covered by a prescription, ensures that pregnant women receive professional care that contributes to your health and your baby".
Heart Rate Monitors Doppler ultrasound:
Similar concerns surrounding the sale and use of heart rate monitors Doppler ultrasound. These devices, which are used to hear the heartbeat of the fetus, are lawfully marketed as "medical devices prescription", and can only be used by a health professional or under the supervision of one.
"When the product is purchased without a prescription and used without consulting a health care professional who is attending to the pregnant woman, there is no oversight on how the device is used. In addition, it is expected that exposure has little or no medical benefit, "says Dr. Vaezy. "Furthermore, the number of sessions, or duration, for the images of a fetus lack of controls, and that increases the possibility that the fetus and, ultimately, the mother damaged".