Learn about obesity in children
How do I know if my child has a healthy weight?
The doctor will monitor the changes in height and weight of children in the course of time and can tell you if your child has a healthy weight. During regular checkups, be sure to talk to your doctor about your childs weight.
Your childs doctor may ask about:
- The feeding habits of your child
- If you know places where to buy healthy food for children
- How much physical activity the child
- If there are certain places where your child can run and play
- Much time your child spends each day in front of screens (watching TV, playing video games or at the computer, phone or tablet, such as iPad)
- Any health problems your child has
- The medical history of your family
What is BMI and what are the percentiles of BMI?
To find out if your child is in a healthy weight range, your doctor may use a measure called BMI or "body mass index". BMI is based on height and weight of your child measure. The BMI helps the doctor estimate how much body fat your child. The doctor can use BMI to see if your child has an appropriate weight for your height. A healthy BMI is different between girls and boys and varies by age.
Your doctor can compare your child´s BMI values ??typical of children of the same sex and age BMI. For that, doctors may use what is called "BMI percentile". This can help the doctor determine if your child is underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Diseases, CDC, for its acronym in English), it is considered that a child has:
- A healthy weight if your BMI is between the 5th percentile and 85th
- Overweight if their BMI is between the 85th percentile and 95 º
- Obese if their BMI is in the 95th percentile or higher
Talk with your child´s doctor about what BMI means your child.
Obesity: the 95th percentile upwards
Overweight: 85th percentile to less than 95
Healthy Weight: 5th percentile to the 85th
Underweight: below the 5th percentile
To calculate BMI and BMI percentile your child visit http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/ (available in English)
What health problems can cause a child being overweight or obese?
Children who are overweight or obese are more likely to be overweight or obese as adults. Also more likely to develop serious health problems, such as:
- High blood sugar or diabetes
- High Blood Pressure
- Cholesterol (a type of blood fat) high
- Sleep apnea (a condition in which a person stops breathing for short periods during sleep)
- Heart problems (such as heart attack or heart failure) or stroke in adulthood
- Increased pressure on bones and joints, which can cause problems in childhood and in adulthood, joints and bones
- Disease Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (disease caused by excess fat in the liver)
- Low self-esteem or depression
- Eating disorders such as binging and purging food
In the U.S., 1 in 3 children are overweight or obese.
What can cause a child to become overweight or obese?
Many things can cause a child to become overweight or obese; for instance:
- Unhealthy eating habits . Children may overeat, eat many foods that are not healthy or take too many sugary drinks.
- Not getting enough sleep . Children who do not sleep long enough each night are more likely to be overweight.
- Family history . Children in families with overweight may be more likely to develop it. That may be due to the child´s genes or eating habits that are learned in the family.
- Lack of sufficient physical activity . It is possible that children do not carry enough physical activity.Children should be active for at least 1 hour each day.
- Too much time in front of screens . Children can spend too much time each day in front of screens.Some children eat while watching TV or playing on the computer.
- Environment . Children may spend time in an environment (such as with family or friends, at daycare or school) where they have access to healthy food choices and opportunities for physical activity.
How to prevent your child from becoming overweight or obese
How I can prevent my child from becoming overweight or obese?
To help prevent your child from becoming overweight or obese, make sure you eat healthy and be active. There are many things you can do at home, at school and in the community to help children maintain a healthy weight.Here are some examples of each is.
There are many things families can do at home. Some examples are:
- Prepare healthy meals at home with components of each food group.
- The food groups include fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods (meat, eggs, fish, "tofu" or tofu and beans) and low-fat dairy products or fat.
- Make sure you eat a healthy breakfast every day.
- Eat at the table with the family, rather than in front of a screen (TV, computer, cell phone or tablet).
- Limit or avoid having drinks and foods that are not healthy at home.
- Replace unhealthy snacks such as cookies, candy or chips in bag, healthy snacks such as fruits and vegetables.
- Replace unhealthy sugary drinks such as soda, sports drinks or juices for healthy drinks such as water and low fat milk or fat.
- Whenever you can, eat at home instead of in restaurants. At home, you are more likely to limit the amount of fat, sugar and salt in their food.
- Make sure you eat the right amount of food.
Stay physically active
- Give your child a chance to run and play for at least 1 hour a day.
- Organize fun activities like biking, walking to the park, playing ball or swimming.
- Encourage the whole family to stay active throughout the day.
- For example, use the stairs instead of the elevator and go to places to walk or bike instead of going by car or bus.
- Limit the time you spend in front of screens every day.
- In addition to being physically active, make sure your child gets enough sleep each night.
Let´s Go! (Come on!) is a program to prevent children from becoming obese. The program is based on healthy eating and physical activity. Let´s Go! recommends healthy habits "5-2-1-0" for each day:
- 5 fruits and vegetables
- 2 hours or less of screen time for fun
- 1 hour or more of physical activity
- 0 sugary drinks
Let´s Go also recommends keeping the TV and computers out of the bedroom of the child and not allowing screen time for children under 2 years.
Let´s Go is a program of the State of Maine also provides resources to communities in other states.
These images and messages are adapted from Let´s Go on www.letsgo.org (available in English only)
Let´s Go also has resources for schools to help children to eat healthy and be physically active. For more information and a packet of resources for your school, visit www.letsgo.org / toolkits . Certain pages package resources are available in Spanish.
To find out what is making your child´s school to help prevent children are overweight or become obese, talk to the principal, the school nurse or school counselor your child. You can also ask how to participate in the Parent Teacher Association (PTA, for its acronym in English) or Parent Teacher Organization (PTO, for its acronym in English).
In addition to eating healthily and be physically active at home, school programs can help children maintain a healthy weight. School programs can include activities such as:
- Lessons about the importance of healthy eating and physical activity.
- Information sessions for parents to learn ways to help your child maintain a healthy weight.
- Healthy options for breakfast and lunch in the cafeteria, with appropriate portion sizes.
- Healthy snacks and drinks in vending machines and at parties and events.
- Water Dispensers with filters, to promote the use of drinking water instead of soda or sports drinks.
- Groups led by adults to go to school on foot or by bicycle.
- A longer period of physical education, in which children are physically active.
- Fitness equipment such as balls and jump ropes for use at recess.
In the community
In addition to home and school, they can also make changes in the community to help children maintain a healthy weight. Communities and community centers can:
- Improve parks, sidewalks and bike paths to ride in the community.
- Take steps to parks, sidewalks and bike paths to be safe.
- Promote community events such as health fairs, walks 5 kilometers (5K), sporting events at local parks, community gardens programs and local farmers markets. This can be done through posters, local newspapers and radio stations and local television.
- Offer programs where families can receive advice on healthy eating and physical activity.
For other resources that can help your child maintain a healthy weight, visit:
For more information to improve parks, sidewalks and bike paths to ride in your area, contact your local department of parks and recreation.
For more information about events or programs in your community, contact your local community and recreation centers (such as the YMCA, the Boys and Girls Club or the local religious community centers).
What researchers found on measures that can be taken at home, school and community to prevent children are overweight or become obese?
Healthy eating and physical activity are very important to prevent children are overweight or become obese.
The researchers found that:
- School programs to help children to eat healthily and being physically active can help prevent becoming overweight or become obese.
- In conjunction with the curriculum, they can be useful also other measures taken at home and in the community.
- More research is needed to find out what programs or measures are most effective.
Talking to your child´s doctor, school officials and community centers
Examples of questions to ask your child
- Is my child a healthy weight?
- What are the most important things I do at home to help my child maintain a healthy weight?
- How I can get my child to eat healthy foods?
- How much of each type of food should my child eat?
- How much physical activity does my child need each day?
- What are the best types of physical activity for my child?
- How long should I allow my child pass in front of screens every day?
- How long should my child sleep every night?
- Do you have resources that can help me keep my child at a healthy weight?
- Are you of community resources that can help you know?
- If I have no grocery stores nearby or healthy foods are expensive for me, do you know resources that can help?
- If there is a safe place for my child out to play, how I can help you stay active?
Sample questions for the principal, school nurse or your child´s counselor
- Does the school offer programs to help prevent children are overweight or become obese? If not, how could we start one?
- In the cafeteria and vending machines? Healthy foods like fruits and vegetables are offered instead of sugary drinks and salty or fatty foods?
- How long will my child for physical activities is given in physical education class, at recess or during the day?
- Do you use once school physical education as punishment or other physical activities?
- Do you have programs for group walks or go to school groups for cycling to school guided by adults or other physical activity programs for children?
- Is there information sessions that you can attend to learn more about how to help my child maintain a healthy weight?
- What can I do at home to help reinforce what is taught in school about healthy eating and physical activity?
- Are you of community resources that can help you know?
Examples of questions to their local community or recreation centers
- Do you have resources or programs on healthy eating and physical activity for children?
- Do you have a calendar of community events that include activities such as health fairs, walks 5 kilometers (5K) and sporting events at local parks?
- Do you have a list of community gardens or local farmers markets?
- Do you know of programs that can guide me to help my family eat healthy and be physically active?
The information in this summary comes from the report Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Comparative Effectiveness Review and Meta-Analysis, (Programs to prevent childhood obesity: A review of comparative efficacy and meta-analysis)., June 2013 The report was produced by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center (Centre for Evidence-Based Practice at Johns Hopkins) with funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in Health Care, AHRQ, for its acronym in English).
Additional information MedlinePlus website was obtained ® , a service of the National Library of Medicine (National Library of Medicine) and the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health) of the United States. This page is available at www.nlm.nih.gov / medlineplus / spanish .
This summary was prepared by the John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science (John M. Eisenberg Center for Science Communications and Clinical Decision) at Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine) in Houston, Texas. It was written by Amelia Williamson Smith, MS, Jason A. Mendoza, MD, MPH, and Michael Fordis, MD This summary was reviewed by parents of children aged 2 to 18 years old.
4 Ways how young people can get health insurance
Young adults have several options to get coverage through the insurance market.
Find out if you are eligible for a Special Enrollment Period. You may be eligible for registration under the Special Enrollment Period unknowingly. If your student medical coverage you finished, you may be eligible for a Special Enrollment Period that will allow you to purchase a health plan through the Insurance Market. You might also grant a Special Enrollment Period if you get married or divorced, have a child or adopt a child, moving to another area, and not old enough to be on the safe parent or have in your life some other event eligible to do so.
Find out how to request coverage for Medicaid
. You can enroll in Medicaid or the Childrens Health Insurance Program (CHIP) at any time of year. If you qualify you can now register.
You can get coverage from their parents plan until age 26, even if married, not living with their parents or dependent on them economically. After age 26, you qualify for a Special Enrollment Period.
These plans are an affordable way to protect yourself from the high costs of the worst cases, such as an accident or serious illness. If you are under 30, you can purchase a catastrophic plan coverage. Served three visits per year before you have paid the deductible and certain preventive services
Pay attention to your lifestyle in times of stress, advises a researcher
Exercise, a healthy diet and a good sleep can protect the body from the negative effects of stress and slow down the process of aging at the cellular level, some researchers report.
A study with hundreds of older women found that stressful events are linked to increased shrinkage of Telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that affect the speed with which age the cells.
"We found that in a period of one year, while more stressful factors showed a woman, most likely it was their Telomeres are encogieran," said the author of the study, Eli Puterman, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of California in San Francisco.
But women who maintained an active life style, ate and slept well seemed protected from the effects of stress, and their Telomeres did not show a significant additional shrink, the researchers said.
Dr. Michael Speicher, Professor and Chair of the Institute of genetics, human at the Medical University of Graz, in Austria, said that the study "addresses a really important biological question: the reason that a healthy lifestyle of truth is useful, especially if one is exposed to stressors".
"The encouraging message is that if one carries out these healthy behaviors, you can reduce some of the effects of stress on the body," he said.
Telomeres are like the plastic end tips at the ends of the shoelace, which avoid you to discard.
They are composed of DNA and protein, and protect the ends of chromosomes so that you discard. As the Telomeres are shortened and their structural integrity is weakened, the cells age and die more quickly.
This type of cell aging has partnered with diseases related to age, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimers disease and cancer. A theory holds that older people are more likely to get cancer because its shrunken Telomeres have made that their chromosomes are unstable and that they tend to operate poorly, said Speicher, it did not participate in the study.
The Telomeres become shorter naturally with age, but unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, poor diet and lack of sleep can do that they shorten before, warned Puterman. Chronic emotional stress has also been linked with a few shorter Telomeres.
To see if a healthy lifestyle could combat the effects of stress, the researchers tracked 239 postmenopausal women who do not smoked for a year. The findings appear in the edition of July 29, the journal Molecular Psychiatry.
The women provided blood samples at the beginning and at the end of the year to measure the Telomere. They were subjected to periodic reviews of their physical activity, diet, and sleep.
In the end, the women also reported stressful events that had occurred in that year. Researchers focused on really stressful life events, become a caregiver of a relative sick, losing a house or a job, or that a loved one died, said Puterman.
The researchers found that those major stressful events elicited a more significant decline in the length of the Telomeres in women who were healthy behaviors without too much evidence.
But the same levels of stress not elicited a greater shortening of Telomeres in women who remained active, eat a healthy diet and slept well.
The study shows the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle in the difficult life periods, they said Puterman and Speicher.
"If were in stressful situations, physical activity, sleep and nutrition of truth are really important to keep our bodies in shape and stay healthy", said Speicher. "With this study now we see it at the genetic level."
The study also expands our understanding of how a healthy lifestyle affects the aging process, said Puterman.
"The same type of person who eats well and continues to exercise is the same type of person who does not age much," he said. "As we delve ever deeper into the cell, get more information above why and what happens at the genetic level".
But the study actually does not prove a causal relationship between healthy habits and a few longer Telomeres. The next step will be randomised trials to see if the exercise can be used to slow down Cellular Aging in people who face a continuous life stress, such as caregivers of Alzheimers patients.
"We will see if we can change the aging process within cells, as well as the levels of depression and stress and that sort of thing," said Puterman.
Although the study was limited to women, both experts said it makes sense that the findings apply to men.
Speicher went further. "There are several studies that say that on average, men have about womens shorter Telomeres," he said. "It could assumed that the effects on men would be even greater on women, but that is just a theory".
For more information about Telomeres, visit the University of Utah.
Article by HealthDay
Why my child need the HPV vaccine?
This vaccine protects against most of the cancers caused by the virus infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a common virus that spreads among people when they have sexual contact with another person. Each year, around 14 million people, including teenagers, are infected with HPV. HPV infection can cause cancer of the cervix in women and cancer of the penis in men. HPV can also cause anal cancer, cancer of the throat and genital warts in both men and women.
When should my child be vaccinated?
It is recommended that preteens, both male and female, put the HPV vaccine at age 11 or 12 years old so that they are protected until they are exposed to the virus. If your teen not has been the vaccine still, talk to your doctor to make it be as soon as possible.
The HPV vaccine is given in 3 doses. The second dose should be 1 or 2 months after the first and the third dose should be administered 6 months after the first. Make sure that your child wear 3 doses to ensure the best protection.
What else should I know about the HPV vaccine?
There are two vaccines against HPV. Girls between 11 and 12 years of age) and young women between 13 and 26 years any of them should be placed to prevent cancer of the cervix.
One vaccine also protects against genital warts and anal cancer in women as in men. Children need to be with this HPV vaccine to prevent anal cancer and genital warts. Girls can be this vaccine to prevent cancer of the cervix, anal cancer and genital warts.
Very careful studies of both HPV vaccines have been performed and these studies have shown that no serious security concern there is with them. Some side effects that have been reported in these studies include pain in the arm, on the site that has been the injection, fever, dizziness and nausea.
Some preteens and teens you can pass out after receiving the HPV vaccine or any other vaccine.Preteens and teens must sit or lie when they put the vaccine and remain so for about 15 minutes after receiving the injection. This can help prevent fainting or other injury that could happen to the faint.
Serious side effects of the HPV vaccine are rare. It is important to tell the doctor or nurse your child if you have any severe allergies, including allergy against the latex or yeast. He is not recommended to put the HPV vaccine to women who are pregnant.
Centres stop Control and prevention of diseases (CDC), all American Academy of family physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the society of adolescent medicine and health recommended vaccines against HPV.
Where can I get more information?
For more information on HPV vaccines and other vaccines for pre-teens and teens talk with the doctor or the nurse her son. You can also get more information is available on the web site "Vaccines for pre-teens and teenagers" from CDC at the following address:cdc.gov ohttp://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/teens (for more information).
How can I get help to pay for these vaccines?